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Lerch S.,CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit | Guidou C.,CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit | Thome J.-P.,University of Liège | Jurjanz S.,CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Understanding how persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are released from adipose tissue (AT) to blood is a critical step in proposing rearing strategies hastening the removal of POPs from contaminated livestock. The current study aimed to determine in nonlactating ewes whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordecone are released from AT to blood along with lipids during body fat mobilization achieved through β-agonist challenges or undernutrition. β-Agonist challenges did not affect serum POP concentrations, whereas serum PCBs 138, 153, and 180 were readily increased in response to undernutrition. After 21 days of depuration in undernutrition, AT PCB 153 and 180 concentrations were increased concomitantly with a decrease in adipocyte volume, whereas AT chlordecone concentration was not different from that observed at the end of the well-fed contamination period. Thus, undernutrition may be of practical relevance for accelerating POP depuration unless it is combined with a strategy increasing their excretion pool. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Jondreville C.,CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit | Fournier A.,CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit | Mahieu M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Feidt C.,CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils. In this area, CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through soil ingestion. In order to assess this risk, a kinetic study involving the contamination of laying hens (22weeks of age) with a diet containing 500μgCLDkg-1 during 42d, followed by a depuration period of 35d was carried out. Forty-four hens were sequentially slaughtered all over the experimental period and their liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum were collected. Two additional edible tissues, pectoral and leg muscles, were collected in hens slaughtered at the end of the contamination period. The depuration half-life of CLD in liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum was estimated at 5.0±0.38 (mean±SE), 5.5±0.29, 5.3±0.37 and 5.1±0.66d, respectively. CLD concentration at the end of the contamination period reached 1640±274, 460±41, 331±23, and 213±8.5μgkg-1 fresh matter (FM), respectively. The corresponding concentrations in pectoral and leg muscles were 119±8.4, 127±11μgkg-1 FM, respectively. The steady state carry over rate of CLD in eggs reached 43±7.6%. This experiment demonstrates the preferential accumulation of CLD in liver, its significant transfer to eggs and its quite short half-life. It is concluded that raising hens on even mildly contaminated areas would lead to products exceeding the regulatory maximum residue limit of 20μgCLDkg-1. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit, Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology and University of Quebec at Chicoutimi
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

Barrage fishponds may represent a significant surface water area in some French regions. Knowledge on their effect on water resources is therefore necessary for the development of appropriate water quality management plans at the regional scale. Although there is much information on the nutrient removal capacity of these water bodies, little attention has been paid to other agricultural contaminants such as pesticides. The present paper reports the results of a 1-year field monitoring of pesticide concentrations and water flows measured upstream and downstream from a fishpond in North East France to evaluate its capacity in reducing pesticide loads. Among the 42 active substances that had been applied on the fishponds catchment, seven pesticides (five herbicides, two fungicides) were studied. The highest concentration in the inflow to the pond was 26.5 g/L (MCPA), while the highest concentration in pond outflow was 0.54 g/L (prosulfocarb). Removal rates of dissolved pesticides in the fishpond ranged from 0-8% (prosulfocarb) to 100% (clopyralid). Although not primarily designed for the treatment of diffuse sources of pesticides, the studied fishpond had the potential to do so.


PubMed | Laboratoire UR Animal et Fonctionnalites des Produits Animaux and CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit
Type: | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

Extensive fish production systems in continental areas are often created by damming headwater streams. However, these lentic systems favour autochthonous organic matter production. As headwater stream functioning is essentially based on allochthonous organic matter (OM) supply, the presence of barrage fishponds on headwater streams might change the main food source for benthic communities. The goal of this study was thus to identify the effects of barrage fishponds on the functioning of headwater streams. To this end, we compared leaf litter breakdown (a key ecosystem function in headwater streams), their associated invertebrate communities and fungal biomass at sites upstream and downstream of five barrage fishponds in two dominant land use systems (three in forested catchments and two in agricultural catchments). We observed significant structural and functional differences between headwater stream ecosystems in agricultural catchments and those in forested catchments. Leaf litter decay was more rapid in forest streams, with a moderate, but not significant, increase in breakdown rate downstream from the barrage fishponds. In agricultural catchments, the trend was opposite with a 2-fold lower leaf litter breakdown rate at downstream sites compared to upstream sites. Breakdown rates observed at all sites were closely correlated with fungal biomass and shredder biomass. No effect of barrage fishponds were observed in this study concerning invertebrate community structure or functional feeding groups especially in agricultural landscapes. In forest streams, we observed a decrease in organic pollution (OP)-intolerant taxa at downstream sites that was correlated with an increase in OP-tolerant taxa. These results highlighted that the influence of barrage fishponds on headwater stream functioning is complex and land use dependent. It is therefore necessary to clearly understand the various mechanisms (competition for food resources, complementarities between autochthonous and allochthonous OM) that control ecosystem functioning in different contexts in order to optimize barrage fishpond management.


PubMed | CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils. In this area, CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through soil ingestion. In order to assess this risk, a kinetic study involving the contamination of laying hens (22 weeks of age) with a diet containing 500 g CLD kg(-1) during 42 d, followed by a depuration period of 35 d was carried out. Forty-four hens were sequentially slaughtered all over the experimental period and their liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum were collected. Two additional edible tissues, pectoral and leg muscles, were collected in hens slaughtered at the end of the contamination period. The depuration half-life of CLD in liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum was estimated at 5.0 0.38 (mean SE), 5.5 0.29, 5.3 0.37 and 5.1 0.66 d, respectively. CLD concentration at the end of the contamination period reached 1640 274, 460 41, 331 23, and 213 8.5 g kg(-1) fresh matter (FM), respectively. The corresponding concentrations in pectoral and leg muscles were 119 8.4, 127 11 g kg(-1) FM, respectively. The steady state carry over rate of CLD in eggs reached 43 7.6%. This experiment demonstrates the preferential accumulation of CLD in liver, its significant transfer to eggs and its quite short half-life. It is concluded that raising hens on even mildly contaminated areas would lead to products exceeding the regulatory maximum residue limit of 20 g CLD kg(-1).


PubMed | CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit and University of Lyon
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD | Year: 2016

Oligomeric amyloid- (A) peptide contributes to impaired synaptic connections and neurodegenerative processes, and as such, represents a primary therapeutic target for Alzheimers disease (AD)-modifying approaches. However, the lack of efficacy of drugs that inhibit production of A demonstrates the need for a better characterization of its toxic effects, both on synaptic and neuronal function. Here, we used conditioned medium obtained from recombinant HEK-APP cells expressing the human amyloid- protein precursor (A-CM), to investigate A-induced neurotoxic and synaptotoxic effects. Characterization of A-CM revealed that it contained picomolar amounts of cell-secreted A in its soluble form. Incubation of primary cortical neurons with A-CM led to significant decreases in synaptic protein levels as compared to controls. This effect was no longer observed in neurons incubated with conditioned medium obtained from HEK-APP cells grown in presence of the -secretase inhibitor, Semagacestat or LY450139 (LY-CM). However, neurotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of A-CM were only partially prevented using LY-CM, which could be explained by other deleterious compounds related to chronic oxidative stress that were released by HEK-APP cells. Indeed, full neuroprotection was observed in cells exposed to LY-CM by additional treatment with the antioxidant resveratrol, or with the pluripotent n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. Inhibition of A production appeared necessary but insufficient to prevent neurodegenerative effects associated with AD due to other neurotoxic compounds that could exert additional deleterious effects on neuronal function and survival. Therefore, association of various types of protective agents needs to be considered when developing strategies for AD treatment.


PubMed | CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit and Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2016

Constructed wetlands have been suggested as pesticide risk mitigation measures. Yet, in many agricultural areas, ponds or shallow lakes are already present and may contribute to the control of non-point source contamination by pesticides. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of extensively managed barrage fishponds (n=3) on the dissolved concentrations of 100 pesticides in headwater streams over the course of a year. Among the 100 pesticides, 50 different substances were detected upstream and 48 downstream. Highest measured concentration upstream was 26.5g/L (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA) and 5.19g/L (isoproturon) downstream. Fishponds were found to reduce peak exposure levels as high pesticide concentrations (defined here as1g/L) generally decreased by more than 90% between upstream and downstream sampling sites. The measured concentrations in the investigated streams were compared to laboratory toxicity data for standard test organisms (algae, invertebrates and fish) using the toxic unit approach. When considering the threshold levels set by the European Union within the first tier risk assessment procedure for pesticide registration (commission regulation (EU) N 546/2011), regulatory threshold exceedances were observed for 22 pesticides upstream from fishponds and for 9 pesticides downstream. Therefore, the investigated barrage fishponds contributed to the reduction of pesticide peak concentrations and potential risk of adverse effects for downstream ecosystems.


PubMed | CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit and University of Liège
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2016

Understanding how persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are released from adipose tissue (AT) to blood is a critical step in proposing rearing strategies hastening the removal of POPs from contaminated livestock. The current study aimed to determine in nonlactating ewes whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordecone are released from AT to blood along with lipids during body fat mobilization achieved through -agonist challenges or undernutrition. -Agonist challenges did not affect serum POP concentrations, whereas serum PCBs 138, 153, and 180 were readily increased in response to undernutrition. After 21 days of depuration in undernutrition, AT PCB 153 and 180 concentrations were increased concomitantly with a decrease in adipocyte volume, whereas AT chlordecone concentration was not different from that observed at the end of the well-fed contamination period. Thus, undernutrition may be of practical relevance for accelerating POP depuration unless it is combined with a strategy increasing their excretion pool.


PubMed | CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit
Type: | Journal: Biochimie | Year: 2016

Lipids are the fundamental structural components of biological membranes. For a long time considered as simple barriers segregating aqueous compartments, membranes are now viewed as dynamic interfaces providing a molecular environment favorable to the activity of membrane-associated proteins. Interestingly, variations in membrane lipid composition, whether quantitative or qualitative, play a crucial role in regulation of membrane protein functionalities. Indeed, a variety of alterations in brain lipid composition have been associated with the processes of normal and pathological aging. Although not establishing a direct cause-and-effect relationship between these complex modifications in cerebral membranes and the process of cognitive decline, evidence shows that alterations in membrane lipid composition affect important physicochemical properties notably impacting the lateral organization of membranes, and thus microdomains. It has been suggested that preservation of microdomain functionality may represent an effective strategy for preventing or decelerating neuronal dysfunction and cerebral vulnerability, processes that are both aggravated by aging. The working hypothesis developed in this review proposes that preservation of membrane organization, for example, through nutritional supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid, could prevent disturbances in and preserve effective cerebral function.


PubMed | CNRS Animal and Functionality of Animal Products Research Unit and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine pesticide whose extended use led to the contamination of at least 20% of agricultural soils from the French West Indies. Livestock reared on polluted areas are involuntary contaminated by CLD and their level of contamination may exceed the threshold values set by the European Union. Thus, characterizing the CLD behaviour in farm animals appear as a real issue in terms of food safety for local populations. The aim of this experiment was (i) to characterize the CLD disappearance in various tissues after exposure cessation and (ii) to evaluate the potential effect of body fatness on this process. Two groups of eight growing goats were submitted to either a basal diet or a high energy diet for 50 days before being intravenously contaminated with 1 mg CLD kg(-1) body weight. Two days after CLD contamination, half of the kids of each experimental group were slaughtered in order to determine pollutant levels in the serum, liver, adipose tissues, and empty carcass. The remaining animals were submitted to a 30-day decontamination period before slaughtering and measurements as described above. The implemented nutritional plan resulted in both groups of kids with significant differences in terms of body fatness. CLD was mainly concentrated in the liver of animals as described in the literature. It was found also in kids empty carcass and adipose tissues; however its levels in the empty carcass (muscles and bones) were unexpected since they were higher than in fat. These results indicate that the lipophilic pollutant CLD is found mainly in liver but also in muscles and fat. Concerning the animals depuration, a 30-d decontamination period was sufficient to observe a decrease of CLD levels by more than 75% in both experimental groups and neither CLD concentrations nor CLD amounts were significantly affected by kids body fatness.

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