CNRS Andndash

CNRS Andndash

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Gardelle J.,CNRS Andndash | Berthier E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Arnaud Y.,IRD Andndash | Kaab A.,University of Oslo
Cryosphere | Year: 2013

The recent evolution of Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya (PKH) glaciers, widely acknowledged as valuable high-altitude as well as mid-latitude climatic indicators, remains poorly known. To estimate the region-wide glacier mass balance for 9 study sites spread from the Pamir to the Hengduan Shan (eastern Himalaya), we compared the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) to recent (2008-2011) DEMs derived from SPOT5 stereo imagery. During the last decade, the region-wide glacier mass balances were contrasted with moderate mass losses in the eastern and central Hima. © 2013 Author(s).

Prigent C.,CNRS Andndash | Jimenez C.,CNRS Andndash | Catherinot J.,CNRS Andndash
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2012

Previous studies examined the possibility to estimate the aeolian aerodynamic roughness length from satellites, either from visible/near-infrared observations or from microwave backscattering measurements. Here we compare the potential of the two approaches and propose to merge the two sources of information to benefit from their complementary aspects, i.e. the high spatial resolution of the visible/near-infrared (6 km for PARASOL that is part of the A-Train) and the independence from atmospheric contamination of the active microwaves (ASCAT on board MetOp with a lower spatial resolution of 25 km). A global map of the aeolian aerodynamic roughness length at 6 km resolution is derived, for arid and semi-arid regions. It shows very good consistency with the existing information on the properties of these surfaces. The dataset is available to the community, for use in atmospheric dust transport models. © 2012 Author(s).

Xie H.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Longuevergne L.,CNRS Andndash | Ringler C.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Scanlon B.R.,University of Texas at Austin
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2012

Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability in water storage. The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a semi-distributed regional-scale hydrologic model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) code for basins in Sub-Saharan Africa using seven-year (July 2002-April 2009) 10-day GRACE data and multi-site river discharge data. The analysis was conducted in a multi-criteria framework. In spite of the uncertainty arising from the tradeoff in optimising model parameters with respect to two non-commensurable criteria defined for two fluxes, SWAT was found to perform well in simulating total water storage variability in most areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, which have semi-arid and sub-humid climates, and that among various water storages represented in SWAT, water storage variations in soil, vadose zone and groundwater are dominant. The study also showed that the simulated total water storage variations tend to have less agreement with GRACE data in arid and equatorial humid regions, and model-based partitioning of total water storage variations into different water storage compartments may be highly uncertain. Thus, future work will be needed for model enhancement in these areas with inferior model fit and for uncertainty reduction in component-wise estimation of water storage variations. © 2012 Author(s).

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