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Patent
Arkema, Cnrs and Bordeaux Polytechnic Institute | Date: 2014-09-09

The present invention relates to a process for producing nanostructured films obtained from block copolymers exhibiting a dispersity index of between 1.1 and 2, limits included, without nanostructuring defects, on a surface, in order for this treated surface to be able to be used as masks for applications in microelectronics.


Patent
Arkema, Cnrs and Bordeaux Polytechnic Institute | Date: 2014-09-09

The present invention relates to a process for controlling the period of a nanostructured assemblage comprising a blend of block copolymers which is deposited on a surface or in a mold. Block copolymers are characterized by the possession of at least one of the constituent monomers respectively of each of the blocks of the block copolymers identical but exhibit different molecular weights. The control process is targeted at obtaining thicknesses of films or objects, with few nanostructuring defects, which are sufficiently great for the treated surface to be able to be used as masks for applications in microelectronics or for the objects resulting therefrom to exhibit previously unpublished mechanical, acoustic or optical characteristics.


Transmission electron microscopy in situ straining experiments were carried out in Fe-110 at.ppm C, between 95 and 375 K, in order to determine the origin of the softening/hardening effects of carbon in an iron matrix. The local stresses in microsamples are in fair agreement with the corresponding macroscopic yield stresses as a function of temperature, and the softening/hardening effects of carbon are well reproduced at the microscopic scale. Dislocations multiply at sources and glide in {1 1 0} planes, as in pure Fe. The motion of straight screw dislocations is much steadier than in pure Fe, however, showing that the transition between the two mechanisms observed in pure Fe was shifted to a lower temperature. This allows one to interpret straightforwardly the softening effect of carbon at intermediate temperatures. The hardening effects at lower and higher temperatures are also discussed. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 636.76K | Year: 2014

Great advances have been made in the development of proto-cells based on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). However, one essential functional element of all living cells still to be incorporated into such systems is a glycocalyx. This coating of complex carbohydrates extends up to 100 nm from the cell membrane and provides an adhesive layer that mediates interactions between different cell types, viruses and signalling molecules. In most cases, these interactions involve specific carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) which may be either soluble or membrane-bound. For example, fertilisation is initiated by a specific carbohydrate on the surface of the egg adhering to a specific lectin on the head of the sperm. Protein-carbohydrate interactions also mediate the endocytosis of many bacteria, viruses and bacterial toxins which stick to specific glycolipids on the cell membrane. Protein-carbohydrate interactions thus present a general strategy for enabling cell adhesion and cell entry. In this project we will design and create a modular toolbox of synthetic glcocalyx components and engineered lectins that will be attached to lipid membranes to enable reversible proto-cell adhesion and incorporated into virus-like particles to mediate proto-cell entry. The methodology will be exemplified through the construction of proto-cells that contain proto-organelles and the assembly and remodelling of proto-tissues in which multiple types of proto-cells are brought together in a pre-defined fashion to create more complex systems.

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