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Silvente S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Sobolev A.P.,CNR Methodological Chemistry Institute | Lara M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important source of protein for human and animal nutrition, as well as a major source of vegetable oil. The soybean crop requires adequate water all through its growth period to attain its yield potential, and the lack of soil moisture at critical stages of growth profoundly impacts the productivity. In this study, utilizing 1H NMR-based metabolite analysis combined with the physiological studies we assessed the effects of short-term water stress on overall growth, nitrogen fixation, ureide and proline dynamics, as well as metabolic changes in drought tolerant (NA5009RG) and sensitive (DM50048) genotypes of soybean in order to elucidate metabolite adjustments in relation to the physiological responses in the nitrogen-fixing plants towards water limitation. The results of our analysis demonstrated critical differences in physiological responses between these two genotypes, and identified the metabolic pathways that are affected by short-term water limitation in soybean plants. Metabolic changes in response to drought conditions highlighted pools of metabolites that play a role in the adjustment of metabolism and physiology of the soybean varieties to meet drought effects. © 2012 Silvente et al.

Cevasco G.,University of Genoa | Cevasco G.,CNR Methodological Chemistry Institute | Chiappe C.,University of Pisa
Green Chemistry | Year: 2014

It is well known that ionic liquids (ILs) possess extraordinary characteristics, making them greener solvents with unique properties, which allow processes that would otherwise be difficult or impossible with common solvents to be carried out. In this review, we describe and discuss, in the light of possible future large scale applications, some fundamental studies showing the efficacy of ILs in several "hot" fields, from dissolution and transformation of biopolymers to extraction and capture of important inorganic components (metals) or pollutants (CO2). © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Mazzei P.,University of Naples Federico II | Mazzei P.,CNR Methodological Chemistry Institute | Piccolo A.,University of Naples Federico II
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The production of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana (MBC) is relevant for the agro-food economy of the Campania Region of Italy and the mark of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) has been assigned to MBC in relation to its geographical origin. Advanced analytical methods must be then employed to assess authenticity, traceability, and quality of MBC. 1H HRMAS-NMR (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy was applied here to directly identify specific metabolites in MBC intact samples without time-consuming sample pre-treatments. Overcrowded conventional 1H HRMAS-NMR spectra were selectively simplified with two NMR pulse sequences: eCPMG and eDiff, by modulating spin-spin relaxation times and diffusion of MBC molecular components, respectively. Signal elaboration of edited spectra was combined with multivariate analyses to enable significant metabolic differentiation between MBC samples from two different production sites in Campania. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) for eCPMG spectra explained 97.54% of total variance between the two MBC groups for four metabolites (β-galactose, β-lactose, acetic acid, and glycerol). Less efficient was groups distinction by PCA for eDiff spectra, although differences in polyunsaturated acids, such as linoleic and linolenic acids, were highlighted. Similarly, Discriminant Analysis (DA) provided MBC group classification with 100% success in validation tests for eCPMG spectra, while DA prediction ability was reduced to 94.12% for eDiff spectra. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) gave a totally correct classification between the two MBC groups only for eCPMG spectra. eCPMG spectra were also used to identify metabolites during MBC aging. As compared to fresh samples, 2 days old MBC samples showed increasing signals for isobutylic alcohol, lactic acid, and acetic acid. This work shows that 1H HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy can rapidly characterise the metabolic profile of intact MBC samples and statistically distinguish the geographical origin of buffalo milk mozzarella and its freshness. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fanali C.,Biomedical University of Rome | Dugo L.,Biomedical University of Rome | Rocco A.,CNR Methodological Chemistry Institute
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

In this study, a nano-liquid chromatography based method for the simultaneous separation of 16 polyphenols employing UV-vis detection has been developed. A 100μm I.D. capillary column packed with C18 core-shell particles (2.6μm particle size, 100Å) for 10cm was employed. The separation of analytes was performed with a step gradient in less than 20min, using 0.5% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as eluents. The optimized analytical method was validated and the resulting RSD% for intra-day and inter-day repeatability, related to retention time, retention factor and peak area, were below 4.68 and 5.57%, respectively. LOD and LOQ values were as low as 0.78 and 3.12μg/mL, while linearity, assessed in the concentration range of interest for all analytes, gave R2≥0.990. The method was finally applied to the analysis of polyphenols extracted from a collected bee pollen. Nine polyphenols, namely o-, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, myricetin, cinnamic acid, quercetin, naringenin, hesperitin and kaempferol, were identified. All analytes, with the exception of p-coumaric acid and myricetin, which partially co-eluted with other pollen components, were also quantified in the sample. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Salvio R.,CNR Methodological Chemistry Institute
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2015

Examples of guanidinium-based artificial phosphodiesterases are illustrated in this review article. A wide set of collected catalytic systems are presented, from the early examples to the most recent developments of the use of this unit in the design of supramolecular catalysts. Special attention is dedicated to illustrate the operating catalytic mechanism and the role of guanidine/ium units in the catalysis. One or more of these units can act by themselves or in conjunction with other active units. The analogy with the mechanism of enzymatic systems is presented and discussed. In the last part of this overview, recent examples of guanidinophosphodiesterases based on nanostructured supports are reported, namely gold-monolayer-protected clusters and polymer brushes grafted to silica nanoparticles. The issue of the dependence of the catalytic performance on the preorganization of the spacer is tackled and discussed in terms of effective molarity, a parameter that can be taken as a quantitative measurement of this preorganization for both conventional molecular linker and nanosized supports. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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