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Pantaleo V.,CNR Institute of Plant virology
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

RNA silencing is described in plants and insects as a defence mechanism against foreign nucleic acids, such as invading viruses. The RNA silencing-based antiviral defence involves the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs and their association to effector proteins, which together drive the sequence specific inactivation of viruses. The entire process of antiviral defence 'borrows' several plant factors involved in other specialized RNA silencing endogenous pathways. Different viruses use variable strategies to infect different host plants, which render the antiviral RNA silencing a complex phenomenon far to be completely clarified. This chapter reports current advances in understanding the main steps of the plant's RNA-silencing response to viral invasion and discusses some of the key questions still to be answered. © 2011 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Shimura H.,Hokkaido University | Pantaleo V.,CNR Institute of Plant virology
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2011

RNA silencing in plants and insects can function as a defence mechanism against invading viruses. RNA silencing-based antiviral defence entails the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs which guide specific antiviral effector complexes to inactivate viral genomes. As a response to this defence system, viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to overcome the host defence. VSRs can act on various steps of the different silencing pathways. Viral infection can have a profound impact on the host endogenous RNA silencing regulatory pathways; alterations of endogenous short RNA expression profile and gene expression are often associated with viral infections and their symptoms. Here we discuss our current understanding of the main steps of RNA-silencing responses to viral invasion in plants and the effects of VSRs on endogenous pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MicroRNAs in viral gene regulation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Cillo F.,CNR Institute of Plant virology | Palukaitis P.,Seoul Womens University
Advances in Virus Research | Year: 2014

Transgenic resistance to plant viruses is an important technology for control of plant virus infection, which has been demonstrated for many model systems, as well as for the most important plant viruses, in terms of the costs of crop losses to disease, and also for many other plant viruses infecting various fruits and vegetables. Different approaches have been used over the last 28 years to confer resistance, to ascertain whether particular genes or RNAs are more efficient at generating resistance, and to take advantage of advances in the biology of RNA interference to generate more efficient and environmentally safer, novel "resistance genes." The approaches used have been based on expression of various viral proteins (mostly capsid protein but also replicase proteins, movement proteins, and to a much lesser extent, other viral proteins), RNAs [sense RNAs (translatable or not), antisense RNAs, satellite RNAs, defective-interfering RNAs, hairpin RNAs, and artificial microRNAs], nonviral genes (nucleases, antiviral inhibitors, and plantibodies), and host-derived resistance genes (dominant resistance genes and recessive resistance genes), and various factors involved in host defense responses. This review examines the above range of approaches used, the viruses that were tested, and the host species that have been examined for resistance, in many cases describing differences in results that were obtained for various systems developed in the last 20 years. We hope this compilation of experiences will aid those who are seeking to use this technology to provide resistance in yet other crops, where nature has not provided such. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Varallyay E.,Agricultural Biotechnology Center | Valoczi A.,University of Heidelberg | Agyi A.,Agricultural Biotechnology Center | Burgyan J.,Agricultural Biotechnology Center | And 2 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2010

Virus infections induce the expression of ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) mRNA and in parallel enhance the accumulation of miR168 (regulator of AGO1 mRNA). Here, we show that in virus-infected plants the enhanced expression of AGO1 mRNA is not accompanied by increased AGO1 protein accumulation. We also show that the induction of AGO1 mRNA level is a part of the host defence reaction, whereas the induction of miR168, which overlaps spatially with virus-occupied sectors, is mediated mainly by the Tombusvirus p19 RNA-silencing suppressor. The absence of p19 results in the elimination of miR168 induction and accompanied with the enhanced accumulation of AGO1 protein. In transient expression study, p19 mediates the induction of miR168 and the down-regulation of endogenous AGO1 level. P19 is not able to efficiently bind miR168 in virus-infected plants, indicating that this activity is uncoupled from the small RNA-binding capacity of p19. Our results imply that plant viruses can inhibit the translational capacity of AGO1 mRNA by modulating the endogenous miR168 level to alleviate the anti-viral function of AGO1 protein. © 2010 European Molecular Biology Organization. All Rights Reserved.

Margaria P.,CNR Institute of Plant virology | Palmano S.,CNR Institute of Plant virology
Proteomics | Year: 2011

Flavescence dorée is a serious phytoplasma disease affecting grapevine in several European countries. We studied the interaction of Flavescence dorée phytoplasma with its natural plant host by monitoring the effects of infection on the protein expression profile. Among the 576 analyzed spots, 33 proteins were differentially regulated in infected grapevines. Grouping into MIPS functional categories showed proteins involved in metabolism (21%), energy processes (9%), protein synthesis (3%), protein fate (18%), cellular transport and transport routes (6%), cell defense and virulence (42%). Among the differentially regulated proteins, we selected six targets (thaumatin I, thaumatin II, osmotin-like protein, plant basic secretory protein, AAA + Rubisco activase and proteasome α5 subunit) and we analyzed their expression by quantitative RT-PCR on samples collected in 2008 and 2009 in several vineyards in Piedmont region, Italy. There was a positive correlation between mRNA and protein expression for most of the genes in both the years. We discuss the involvement of these proteins in the specific response to phytoplasma infection. To our knowledge, this work is the first to investigate the response of the grapevine proteome to Flavescence dorée phytoplasma infection, and provides reference protein profiles for future comparative proteomic and genomic studies. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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