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Istituto di Genetica Vegetale is an integral part of the institutes of the Italian Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche . It is officially located in Bari and has four different Divisions, located in Portici, Palermo, Florence and Perugia. IGV started its activities on November 2002. In the framework of the new CNR National Research Network, IGV is the result of the fusion of five former Institutes, operating in the field of Plant Genetics and Breeding, namely Germplasm Institute – Bari; the Institute of Forest Tree Breeding - Florence, Research Institute of Ornamental and Vegetable Plant Breeding -Portici, Research Institute for Citrus Genetics, Palermo; Research Institute for Grass and Fodder Crop Breeding - Perugia. Wikipedia.

Pupilli F.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics | Barcaccia G.,University of Padua
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Apomixis is desirable in agriculture as a reproductive strategy for cloning plants by seeds. Because embryos derive from the parthenogenic development of apomeiotic egg cells, apomixis excludes fertilization in addition to meiotic segregation and recombination, resulting in offspring that are exact replicas of the parent. Introgression of apomixis from wild relatives to crop species and transformation of sexual genotypes into apomictically reproducing ones are long-held goals of plant breeding. In fact, it is generally accepted that the introduction of apomixis into agronomically important crops will have revolutionary implications for agriculture. This review deals with the current genetic and molecular findings that have been collected from model species to elucidate the mechanisms of apomeiosis, parthenogenesis and apomixis as a whole. Our goal is to critically determine whether biotechnology can combine key genes known to control the expression of the processes miming the main components of apomixis in plants. Two natural apomicts, as the eudicot . Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) and the monocot . Paspalum spp. (crowngrass), and the sexual model species . Arabidopsis thaliana are ideally suited for such investigations at the genomic and biotechnological levels. Some novel views and original concepts have been faced on this review, including (i) the parallel between Y-chromosome and apomixis-bearing chromosome (. e.g., comparative genomic analyses revealed common features as repression of recombination events, accumulation of transposable elements and degeneration of genes) from the most primitive (. Hypericum-type) to the most advanced (. Paspalum-type) in evolutionary terms, and (ii) the link between apomixis and gene-specific silencing mechanisms (. i.e., likely based on chromatin remodelling factors), with merging lines of evidence regarding the role of auxin in cell fate specification of embryo sac and egg cell development in . Arabidopsis. The production of engineered plants exhibiting apomictic-like phenotypes is critically reviewed and discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Piergiovanni A.R.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2011

Water uptake of common bean samples belonging to both commercial cultivars and Italian local varieties and representing different market classes was studied. Three hydration groups characterized by slow, intermediate and fast water uptake were identified. Predictive efficacy of Peleg model, commonly used to describe legume soaking, was evaluated by analyzing data relative to samples belonging to the three hydration groups. It was observed that different hydration rate gave rise to significant variation of both Peleg constants within as well as among the groups. Moreover, the Peleg model predicted adequately only the hydration kinetic of common bean samples belonging to the fast hydration group. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Piergiovanni A.R.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful analytical tool that is widely applied to the analysis of biological samples. Proteins, peptides, nonprotein amino acids, phenolic compounds, and ions can be analysed using this electrophoretic methodology. This review summarises some applications of CE to the evaluation and characterisation of plant genetic resources of both Triticum and legume species, as carried out at the Istituto di Genetica Vegetale, National Research Council (IGV-CNR) in Bari (Italy). Different protein fractions as well as nonprotein amino acids were investigated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the most user-friendly mode of CE application. The described case studies show that CZE can be applied to some institutional activities of gene banks such as the evaluation of genetic diversity within stored collections, the acquisition of new samples, the differentiation of species belonging to the same genus, the identification of misclassified accessions, and the measurement of compounds relevant to nutrition or health. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Piergiovanni A.R.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

The increasing consumers' request for new speciality wheat derivatives and the possible widening of marketing opportunities is giving to both landraces and old varieties, new chance of on farm survival providing a low cost way to safeguard these important genetic resources. A farmer's consortium acting in north-western Italy, is attempting the introduction of some old bread wheat landraces in marginal environments of Piedmont and Liguria regions. The reason of this attempt is the local market demand of old bread varieties suitable for the preparation of traditional cakes and biscuits. Three Italian bread wheat landraces, a mixture of durum and bread wheat landraces and three modern varieties were evaluated. The entries were cropped in Val Borbera and Val d'Aveto (Piedmont and Liguria region, respectively) in the same growing season (2009-2010). The high variation of gliadin profile detected within the landraces indicates that all have retained the genetic heterogeneity typical of the old wheat landraces. In consequence of the health-promoting effects of whole grain consumption, eleven nutritional and technological traits of whole flours were investigated. The analysis of collected data revealed appreciable differences among the flours obtained from the landraces and the modern varieties. These differences can be mainly attributed to the intensive breeding carried out on bread wheat in the last century. The results of this study suggest that the old bread wheat landraces could have good chance of survive on farm when their characteristics fulfil the requirements of local communities. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Lioi L.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics | Galasso I.,CNR Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology
Plant Breeding | Year: 2013

Simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite markers are a valuable tool for several purposes such as evaluation of genetic diversity, fingerprinting, marker-assisted selection and breeding. In this study, a SSR genomic enriched library was developed in Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) by affinity capture of restriction fragments to biotinylated microsatellite oligonucleotides. About 400 randomly selected clones were sequenced, and SSRs were present in approximately 30% of them. Clones contained 75%, 9% and 16% of simple, interrupted and compound SSRs, respectively. Of the 10 SSRs tested, 7 primer pairs produced clearly distinguishable DNA banding patterns. Successively, SSR primer pairs were successfully tested to reveal polymorphism in a set of four different grass pea germplasm accessions. The transferability of SSR markers was high among three related species of Lathyrus, namely Lathyrus cicera, Lathyrus ochrus and Lathyrus tingitanus, and the legume crop, Pisum sativum. These results indicate that the novel SSR markers are informative and will be useful and convenient for genetic analysis in grass pea and related species. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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