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Scalco E.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology | Fiorino C.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Cattaneo G.M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Sanguineti G.,Johns Hopkins University | Rizzo G.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2013

Background and purpose During radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer, parotid glands undergo significant anatomic, functional and structural changes which could characterize pre-clinical signs of an increased risk of xerostomia. Texture analysis is proposed to assess structural changes of parotids induced by RT, and to investigate whether early variations of textural parameters (such as mean intensity and fractal dimension) can predict parotid shrinkage at the end of treatment. Material and methods Textural parameters and volumes of 42 parotids from 21 patients treated with intensity-modulated RT for nasopharyngeal cancer were extracted from CT images. To individuate which parameters changed during RT, a Wilcoxon signed-rank test between textural indices (first and second RT week; first and last RT week) was performed. Discriminant analysis was applied to variations of these parameters in the first two weeks of RT to assess their power in predicting parotid shrinkage at the end of RT. Results A significant decrease in mean intensity (1.7 HU and 3.8 HU after the second and last weeks, respectively) and fractal dimension (0.016 and 0.021) was found. Discriminant analysis, based on volume and fractal dimension, was able to predict the final parotid shrinkage (accuracy of 71.4%). Conclusion Textural features could be used in combination with volume to characterize structural modifications on parotid glands and to predict parotid shrinkage at the end of RT. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Camici P.G.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | D'Amati G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Rimoldi O.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology
Nature Reviews Cardiology | Year: 2015

Obstructive disease of the epicardial coronary arteries was recognized as the cause of angina pectoris >2 centuries ago, and sudden thrombotic occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery has been established as the cause of acute myocardial infarction for >100 years. In the past 2 decades, dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature emerged as an additional mechanism of myocardial ischaemia that bears important prognostic implications. The coronary microvasculature (vessels <300 μm in diameter) cannot be directly imaged in vivo, but a number of invasive and noninvasive techniques, each with relative advantages and pitfalls, can be used to assess parameters that depend directly on coronary microvascular function. These methods include invasive or noninvasive measurement of Doppler-derived coronary blood flow velocity reserve, assessment of myocardial blood flow and flow reserve using noninvasive imaging, and calculation of microcirculatory resistance indexes during coronary catheterization. These advanced techniques for assessment of the coronary microvasculature have provided novel insights into the pathophysiological role of coronary microvascular dysfunction in the development of myocardial ischaemia in different clinical conditions. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Fairchild G.,University of Southampton | Hagan C.C.,University of Cambridge | Passamonti L.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology | Walsh N.D.,University of East Anglia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective Conduct disorder (CD) in females is associated with negative adult outcomes including mental health problems and personality disorders. Although recent neuroimaging studies have reported changes in neural activity during facial emotion processing in males with CD or callous-unemotional (CU) traits, there have been no neuroimaging studies specifically assessing females with CD. We addressed this gap by investigating whether female adolescents with CD show atypical neural activation when processing emotional or neutral faces. Method We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 20 female adolescents with CD and 20 female control participants while they viewed angry, sad, and neutral faces. Results An omnibus group (CD, control) by facial emotion (angry, sad, neutral) analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed main effects of facial emotion in superior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and insula, and main effects of group in medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and right anterior insula. Female participants with CD showed reduced medial OFC and increased anterior insula responses relative to healthy controls. There were no significant group × facial emotion interactions. Lifetime CD symptoms were negatively correlated with amygdala, superior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity for the contrast "all-faces versus fixation." CU traits were negatively correlated with fusiform gyrus activity for the contrast sad versus neutral faces. Conclusion Females with CD showed atypical neural activation during the processing of all facial expressions, irrespective of valence. Our results demonstrate that severity of CD symptoms and CU traits is important in explaining abnormal patterns of neural activity.


Cerretelli P.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology | Gelfi C.,University of Milan
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

An holistic approach for interpreting classical data on the adaptation of the animal and, particularly, of the human body to hypoxic stress was promoted by the discovery of HIF-1, the "master regulator" of cell hypoxic signaling. Mitochondrial production of ROS stabilizes the O2- regulated HIF-1α subunit of the HIF-1 dimer promoting transaction functions in a large number of potential target genes, activating transcription of sequences into RNA and, eventually, protein production. The aim of the present preliminary study is to assess whether adaptive changes in oxygen sensing and metabolic signaling, particularly in the control of energy turnover known to occur in cultured cells exposed to hypoxia, are detectable also in the muscles of animals and man. For the present analysis, data obtained from the proteome of the rat gastrocnemius and of the vastus lateralis muscle of humans together with functional measurements were compared with homologous data from hypoxic cultured cells. In particular, the following variables were assessed: (1) the role of stress response proteins in the maintenance of ROS homeostasis, (2) the activity of the PDK1 gene on the shunting of pyruvate away from the TCA cycle in rodents and in humans, (3) the COX-4/COX-2 ratio in hypoxic rodents, (4) the overall efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in humans during exercise in hypoxia, (5) some features of muscle mitochondrial autophagy in humans undergoing subchronic and chronic altitude exposure. Despite the limited number of observations and the differences in the experimental approach, some initial interesting results were obtained encouraging to pursue this innovative effort. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Alberghina L.,University of Milan Bicocca | Gaglio D.,University of Milan Bicocca | Gaglio D.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2014

Glutamine utilization promotes enhanced growth of cancer cells. We propose a new concept map of cancer metabolism in which mitochondrial NADH and NADPH, in the presence of a dysfunctional electron transfer chain, promote reductive carboxylation from glutamine. We also discuss why nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is required in vivo for glutamine utilization by reductive carboxylation. Moreover, NADPH, generated by both the pentose phosphate pathway and the cancer-specific serine glycolytic diversion, appears to sustain glutamine utilization for amino-acid synthesis, lipid synthesis, and for ROS quenching. The fact that the supply of NAD+ precursors reduces tumor aggressiveness suggests experimental approaches to clarify the role of the NADH-driven redox network in cancer. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Salvatore C.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology | Battista P.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology | Castiglioni I.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2016

The emergence of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) as a consequence of increasing aging population makes urgent the availability of methods for the early and accurate diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) could be used as in vivo, non invasive tool to identify sensitive and specific markers of very early AD progression. In recent years, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and machine- learning algorithms have attracted strong interest within the neuroimaging community, as they allow automatic classification of imaging data with higher performance than univariate statistical analysis. An exhaustive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Medline records was performed in this work, in order to retrieve studies focused on the potential role of MRI in aiding the clinician in early diagnosis of AD by using Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as MVPA automated classification method. A total of 30 studies emerged, published from 2008 to date. This review aims to give a state-of-the-art overview about SVM for the early and differential diagnosis of AD-related pathologies by means of MRI data, starting from preliminary steps such as image pre-processing, feature extraction and feature selection, and ending with classification, validation strategies and extraction of MRI-related biomarkers. The main advantages and drawbacks of the different techniques were explored. Results obtained by the reviewed studies were reported in terms of classification performance and biomarker outcomes, in order to shed light on the parameters that accompany normal and pathological aging. Unresolved issues and possible future directions were finally pointed out. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.


Calabria F.F.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: F-DOPA PET/CT is potentially helpful in the management of patients with low-grade brain tumors, movement disorders, and somatic neuroendocrine tumors. We describe the whole-body physiological distribution of F-DOPA uptake. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined 215 patients with F-DOPA PET/CT. Among these, 161 had brain scans and 54 had whole-body scans. RESULTS: Physiological distribution was negligible in the brain, with the exception of basal ganglia, whereas greatest activity was noted in the liver, pancreas, other exocrine glands, and the urinary system. Incidental tracer uptake sites were identified in 5.5% of patients. Some of these findings were due to inflammation, whereas in most cases, uptake was seen in benign tumors of the brain or in the endocrine or exocrine glands. CONCLUSIONS: F-DOPA uptake may be seen in inflammatory tissue or benign tumors. Correlations with history, physical examination, laboratory examination, CT, MRI, and histology are necessary for optimal diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Proverbio A.M.,University of Milan Bicocca | Riva F.,University of Milan Bicocca | Martin E.,University of Milan Bicocca | Zani A.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: It is currently believed that face processing predominantly activates the right hemisphere in humans, but available literature is very inconsistent. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, ERPs were recorded in 50 right-handed women and men in response to 390 faces (of different age and sex), and 130 technological objects. Results showed no sex difference in the amplitude of N170 to objects; a much larger face-specific response over the right hemisphere in men, and a bilateral response in women; a lack of face-age coding effect over the left hemisphere in men, with no differences in N170 to faces as a function of age; a significant bilateral face-age coding effect in women. Conclusions/Significance: LORETA reconstruction showed a significant left and right asymmetry in the activation of the fusiform gyrus (BA19), in women and men, respectively. The present data reveal a lesser degree of lateralization of brain functions related to face coding in women than men. In this light, they may provide an explanation of the inconsistencies in the available literature concerning the asymmetric activity of left and right occipito-temporal cortices devoted to face perception during processing of face identity, structure, familiarity or affective content. © 2010 Proverbio et al.


Calabria F.F.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Department for a 2-year story of upper limb tremor, severe headache, and episodes of confusion. Brain F-DOPA PET/CT showed multiple areas of tracer uptake in the two hemispheres of the brain. Subsequent MRI displayed demyelinating foci with high contrast enhancement. Histological specimen confirmed the diagnosis of multiple meningiomas. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Bertoli G.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology | Cava C.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology | Castiglioni I.,CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology
Theranostics | Year: 2015

Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), as strong evidence has been found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review presents the state of the art on the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of BC. Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability. Other miRNAs are of interest as new, easily accessible, affordable, non-invasive tools for the personalized management of patients with BC because they are circulating in body fluids (e.g., miR-155 and miR-210). In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC. New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy). © 2015 Ivyspring International Publisher.

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