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Robert McElroy C.,University of Venice | Arico F.,University of Venice | Benetollo F.,CNR Institute of Inorganic and Surface Chemistry | Tundo P.,University of Venice
Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2012

A number of six-membered cyclic carbamates (oxazinanones) were synthesized from the reaction of a primary amine or hydrazine with a dicarbonate derivative of 1,3-diols in a one-pot reaction, in good yield, short time span, and in the absence of a solvent. The reaction proceeds in two steps: an intermolecular reaction to give a linear intermediate and an intramolecular cyclization to yield the cyclic carbamate. This is the first example of a carbonate reacting selectively and sequentially, firstly at the carbonyl center to form a linear carbamate and then as a leaving group to yield a cyclic carbamate. © 2011 IUPAC.

Battistel D.,University of Venice | Daniele S.,University of Venice | Gerbasi R.,CNR Institute of Inorganic and Surface Chemistry | Baldo M.A.,University of Venice
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2010

In this paper, physiochemical properties of amorphous alumina thin films, grown by the metal organic chemical vapour deposition process on the surface of platinum (Pt/Al2O3) and stainless steel (SS/Al2O3), were investigated in aqueous media. The study was performed by the use of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), which allowed obtaining information on uniformity, topography and chemical stability/reactivity of the alumina coatings with high spatial resolution. In particular, the effects due to local acid, base and fluoride ions attack on alumina layers of thickness of about 250 nm (in the Pt/Al2O3 sample) and 1000 nm (in the SS/Al2O3 sample) were investigated. In the acid and base attack, high concentrations of H2SO4 and KOH were electrogenerated locally by the use of a 25 μm diameter platinum microelectrode. The latter was also used as SECM tip to monitor the chemical effect on the alumina layers. It was found that, regardless of the thickness of the film, alumina provided good resistance against local attack of concentrated H2SO4; instead, the film dissolved when subjected to KOH attack. The dissolution rate depended on several experimental parameters, such as SECM-tip to substrate distance, electrolysis time and alumina film thickness. The alumina layer proved also relatively poor resistance to etching in 0.1 M NaF solutions. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Di Bernardo P.,University of Padua | Zanonato P.L.,University of Padua | Benetollo F.,CNR Institute of Inorganic and Surface Chemistry | Melchior A.,University of Udine | And 2 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2012

The thermodynamics of the complexation between uranium(VI) and acetate in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied at 298 K in an ionic medium of 0.1 mol dm -3 tetrabutyl ammonium perchlorate. The results show that the uranyl ion forms three strong successive mononuclear complexes with acetate. The complexes, both enthalpically and entropically stabilized, are significantly more stable in DMSO than in water. This feature can be ascribed to the weak solvation of acetate in DMSO. The thermodynamic parameters for the formation of the uranium(VI) complexes with acetate in DMSO are compared with those with ethylenediamine in the same solvent. The difference between the two ligand systems reveals that, for the complexation reactions involving charge neutralization, the reorganization of the solvent gives a very important contribution to the overall complexation energetics. The coordination mode of acetate in the uranyl complexes and the changes of the solvation sphere of UO 2 2+ upon complexation were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy in DMSO and in acetonitrile/DMSO mixtures. In addition, DFT calculations were performed to provide an accurate description of the complexation at the molecular level. The experimental and calculated results suggest that acetate is solely bidentate to UO 2 2+ in the 1:1 and 1:3 complexes but mono- and bidentate in the 1:2 complexes. The DFT calculations also indicate that the medium effects must always be taken into account in order to gain accurate information on the complex formation in solution. In fact, the relative stability of the reaction products changes markedly when the DFT calculations are carried out in vacuum or in DMSO solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Tisato F.,CNR Institute of Inorganic and Surface Chemistry | Marzano C.,University of Padua | Porchia M.,CNR Institute of Inorganic and Surface Chemistry | Pellei M.,University of Camerino | Santini C.,University of Camerino
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2010

Copper is found in all living organisms and is a crucial trace element in redox chemistry, growth and development. It is important for the function of several enzymes and proteins involved in energy metabolism, respiration, and DNA synthesis, notably cytochrome oxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate oxidase, and tyrosinase. The major functions of copper - biological molecules involve oxidation-reduction reactions in which they react directly with molecular oxygen to produce free radicals. Therefore, copper requires tightly regulated homeostatic mechanisms to ensure adequate supplies without any toxic effects. Overload or deficiency of copper is associated, respectively, with Wilson disease (WD) and Menkes disease (MD), which are of genetic origin. Researches on Menkes and Wilson disorders have provided useful insights in the field of copper homeostasis and in particular into the understanding of intracellular trafficking and distribution of copper at molecular levels. Therapies based on metal supplementation with copper histidine or removal of copper excess by means of specific copper chelators are currently effective in treating MD and WD, respectively. Copper chelation therapy is now attracting much attention for the investigation and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and CreutzfeldtJakob. An excess of copper appears to be an essential co-factor for angiogenesis. Moreover, elevated levels of copper have been found in many types of human cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, lung, and brain. On these basis, the employment of copper chelators has been reported to be of therapeutic value in the treatment of several types of cancers as anti-angiogenic molecules. More recently, mixtures of copper chelators with copper salts have been found to act as efficient proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers, specifically in cancer cells. Moreover, following the worldwide success of platinum(II) compounds in cancer chemotherapy, several families of individual copper complexes have been studied as potential antitumor agents. These investigations, revealing the occurrence of mechanisms of action quite different from platinum drugs, head toward the development of new anticancer metallodrugs with improved specificity and decreased toxic side effects. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Favaro M.,CNR Institute of Inorganic and Surface Chemistry | Guastoni A.,University of Padua | Marini F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bianchin S.,CNR Institute of Inorganic and Surface Chemistry | Gambirasi A.,CNR Institute of Inorganic and Surface Chemistry
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose an analytical methodology for attributing provenance to natural lapis lazuli pigments employed in works of art, and for distinguishing whether they are of natural or synthetic origin. A multitechnique characterization of lazurite and accessory phases in lapis lazuli stones from Afghan, Siberian and Chilean quarries, on the pigments obtained by their purification, and on synthetic ultramarine pigments was performed. According to the results obtained, infrared spectroscopy is not a suitable technique for distinguishing the provenance of lapis lazuli, but a particular absorbance band makes it relatively easy to determine whether it is of natural or synthetic origin. On the other hand, EDS elemental composition and XRD patterns show the presence of specific mineral phases associated with specific lapis lazuli sources, and can be used to distinguish the provenance of the stones as well as-albeit to a lesser extent-the corresponding purified blue pigments. In contrast, FEG-SEM observations clearly show different stone textures depending on their provenance, although these distinctive features do not persist in the corresponding pigments. PCA analyses of EDS data allow Afghan lapis lazuli stone to be distinguished from Chilean and Siberian ones, and can distinguish between the pigments resulting from their purification as well as synthetic blue ones. Although this methodology was developed using a limited number of samples, it was tested on lapis lazuli pigments collected from three paintings (from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries) in order to perform a preliminary validation of the technique, and based on the results, the provenance of the blue pigments employed in those artworks is proposed. Finally, upon analytically monitoring the process of purifying lapis lazuli to obtain the corresponding pigments, it was found that ion-exchange reactions occur between the alkali modifiers of silicate/aluminosilicate phases and free carboxylic acids present in the doughy mixture of natural terpenes and ground stone, namely pastello. These reactions favor (i) the retention of silicate phases in the organic mixture and (ii) the selective extraction of lazurite due to the formation of Brønsted acidic sites [Al(OH)Si], which are responsible for its high hydrophilicity in comparison to the one of the other species present in the lapis lazuli stone. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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