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Siciliano R.A.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Mazzeo M.F.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2012

Probiotics are living microorganisms that confer beneficial effects to human health when supplied in adequate amounts, by promoting digestion and uptake of dietary nutrients, strengthening intestinal barrier function, modulating immune response and enhancing antagonism towards pathogens. The purpose of the present article is to focus on microbial proteomics, pointing out its usefulness in the investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying probiotic effects. It deals, in particular, with molecular strategies responsible for adaptation to the harsh physical-chemical environment of the gastro-intestinal tract, bacterial adhesion to host epithelial cells and intestinal mucosa and probiotic immunomodulatory properties, as analyzed by proteomics in the past few years. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mamone G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Picariello G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Ferranti P.,University of Naples Federico II | Addeo F.,University of Naples Federico II
Proteomics | Year: 2010

The most challenging analytical task facing phosphoproteome determination requires the isolation of phosphorylated peptides from the myriad of unphosphorylated species. In the past, several strategies for phosphopeptide isolation have been proposed in combination with subsequent mass spectrometric investigations. Among these techniques, immobilized metal affinity chromatography and titanium dioxide have been recognized as the most effective. Here, we present an alternative method for the enrichment of phosphopeptides based on hydroxyapatite (HAP) chromatography. By taking advantage of the strong interaction of HAP with phosphate and calcium ions, we developed an efficient method for the selective separation and fractionation of phosphorylated peptides. The effectiveness and efficiency of recovery for this procedure was assayed using tryptic digests of standard phosphorylated protein mixtures. Based on the higher affinity of multi-phosphorylated peptides for HAP surfaces, the introduction of a phosphate buffer gradient for stepwise peptide elution resulted in the separation of mono-, di-, tri-, and multi-phosphorylated peptides. Thus, we demonstrated that this technique is highly selective and independent of the degree of peptide phosphorylation. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source

Ombra M.N.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Di Santi A.,The Second University of Naples | Abbondanza C.,The Second University of Naples | Migliaccio A.,The Second University of Naples | And 2 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2013

More than 70% of breast cancers in women require estrogens for cell proliferation and survival. 17β-estradiol (E2) effect on mammary target cells is almost exclusively mediated by its binding to the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) that joins chromatin where it assembles active transcription complexes. The proliferative and pro-survival action of estrogens is antagonized in most cases by retinoic acid (RA), even though the cognate retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) cooperates with ERα on promoters of estrogen-responsive genes.We have examined at the molecular level the crosstalk between these nuclear receptors from the point of view of their control of cell growth and show here that RA reverts estrogen-stimulated transcription of the pivotal anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene by preventing demethylation of dimethyl lysine 9 in histone H3 (HeK9me2). As we previously reported, this is obtained by means of E2-triggered activation of the lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), an enzyme that manages chromatin plasticity in order to allow specific movements of chromosomal regions within the nucleus. We find that E2 fuels LSD1 by inducing migration of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) into the nucleus, where it targets estrogen-responsive loci. RA rescues LSD1-dependent disappearance of H3K9me2 at bcl-2 regulatory regions upon the prevention of PKA assembly to the same sites. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Picariello G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Mamone G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Addeo F.,University of Naples Federico II | Ferranti P.,University of Naples Federico II
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

In the last years proteomic science has started to provide an important contribution to the disclosure of basic aspects of food-related diseases. Among these, the identification of proteins involved in food allergy and their mechanism of activation of toxicity. Elucidation of these key issues requires the integration of clinical, immunological, genomic and proteomic approaches. These combined research efforts are aimed to obtain structural and functional information to assist the development of novel, more reliable and powerful diagnostic protocols alternative to the currently available procedures, mainly based on food challenge tests. Another crucial aspect related to food allergy is the need for methods to detect trace amounts of allergenic proteins in foods. Mass spectrometry is the only non-immunological method for high-specificity and high-sensitivity detection of allergens in foods. Nowadays, once provided the appropriate sample handling and the correct operative conditions, qualitative and quantitative determination of allergens in foods and ingredients can be efficiently obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS methods, with limits of detection and quantification in the low-ppb range. The availability of accurate and fast alternatives to immunological ELISA tests may also enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies and food processing technologies to aid patients with food allergy or intolerance, and to support allergen labelling and certification processes, all issues where the role of proteomic science is emerging. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Cozzolino R.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | De Giulio B.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Triacylglycerols (TAG) are the most important group of compounds present in vegetable oils. These biomolecules, determining the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of the oils, are considered to be good fingerprints for quality and authenticity control. Therefore, TAGs characterization is a very important task in edible oil field, which has been undertaken by different analytical methods. The analysis of vegetable oils is still dominated by classic determinations, which are however laborious and time-consuming and cannot be used routinely. More recently, advances in MS instrumentations coupled with online separation techniques and data processing have contributed to great expansion of MS in oil study, allowing the development of innovative analytical approaches that exhibit higher sensitivity, accuracy and rapidity in vegetable oils investigations. In the present contribution, a review of the most relevant applications of novel mass spectrometric techniques, such as ESI and MALDI, both alone and hyphenated with HPLC, used for analysis of the complex TAGs mixture of edible oils is illustrated. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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