CNR Institute of Food Sciences


CNR Institute of Food Sciences

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Picariello G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Mamone G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Addeo F.,University of Naples Federico II | Ferranti P.,University of Naples Federico II
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

In the last years proteomic science has started to provide an important contribution to the disclosure of basic aspects of food-related diseases. Among these, the identification of proteins involved in food allergy and their mechanism of activation of toxicity. Elucidation of these key issues requires the integration of clinical, immunological, genomic and proteomic approaches. These combined research efforts are aimed to obtain structural and functional information to assist the development of novel, more reliable and powerful diagnostic protocols alternative to the currently available procedures, mainly based on food challenge tests. Another crucial aspect related to food allergy is the need for methods to detect trace amounts of allergenic proteins in foods. Mass spectrometry is the only non-immunological method for high-specificity and high-sensitivity detection of allergens in foods. Nowadays, once provided the appropriate sample handling and the correct operative conditions, qualitative and quantitative determination of allergens in foods and ingredients can be efficiently obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS methods, with limits of detection and quantification in the low-ppb range. The availability of accurate and fast alternatives to immunological ELISA tests may also enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies and food processing technologies to aid patients with food allergy or intolerance, and to support allergen labelling and certification processes, all issues where the role of proteomic science is emerging. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ombra M.N.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Di Santi A.,The Second University of Naples | Abbondanza C.,The Second University of Naples | Migliaccio A.,The Second University of Naples | And 2 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2013

More than 70% of breast cancers in women require estrogens for cell proliferation and survival. 17β-estradiol (E2) effect on mammary target cells is almost exclusively mediated by its binding to the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) that joins chromatin where it assembles active transcription complexes. The proliferative and pro-survival action of estrogens is antagonized in most cases by retinoic acid (RA), even though the cognate retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) cooperates with ERα on promoters of estrogen-responsive genes.We have examined at the molecular level the crosstalk between these nuclear receptors from the point of view of their control of cell growth and show here that RA reverts estrogen-stimulated transcription of the pivotal anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene by preventing demethylation of dimethyl lysine 9 in histone H3 (HeK9me2). As we previously reported, this is obtained by means of E2-triggered activation of the lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), an enzyme that manages chromatin plasticity in order to allow specific movements of chromosomal regions within the nucleus. We find that E2 fuels LSD1 by inducing migration of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) into the nucleus, where it targets estrogen-responsive loci. RA rescues LSD1-dependent disappearance of H3K9me2 at bcl-2 regulatory regions upon the prevention of PKA assembly to the same sites. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Mamone G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Picariello G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Ferranti P.,University of Naples Federico II | Addeo F.,University of Naples Federico II
Proteomics | Year: 2010

The most challenging analytical task facing phosphoproteome determination requires the isolation of phosphorylated peptides from the myriad of unphosphorylated species. In the past, several strategies for phosphopeptide isolation have been proposed in combination with subsequent mass spectrometric investigations. Among these techniques, immobilized metal affinity chromatography and titanium dioxide have been recognized as the most effective. Here, we present an alternative method for the enrichment of phosphopeptides based on hydroxyapatite (HAP) chromatography. By taking advantage of the strong interaction of HAP with phosphate and calcium ions, we developed an efficient method for the selective separation and fractionation of phosphorylated peptides. The effectiveness and efficiency of recovery for this procedure was assayed using tryptic digests of standard phosphorylated protein mixtures. Based on the higher affinity of multi-phosphorylated peptides for HAP surfaces, the introduction of a phosphate buffer gradient for stepwise peptide elution resulted in the separation of mono-, di-, tri-, and multi-phosphorylated peptides. Thus, we demonstrated that this technique is highly selective and independent of the degree of peptide phosphorylation. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Nazzaro F.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Orlando P.,CNR Institute of Protein Biochemistry | Fratianni F.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Coppola R.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Microencapsulation can represent an excellent example of microtechnologies applied to food science and biotechnology. Microencapsulation can be successfully applied to entrap natural compounds, like essential oils or vegetal extracts containing polyphenols with well known antimicrobial properties to be used in food packaging. Microencapsulation preserves lactic acid bacteria, both starters and probiotics, in food and during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and may contribute to the development of new functional foods. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Volpe M.G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences
Recent patents on food, nutrition & agriculture | Year: 2010

Biopolymers have properties that make them suitable for use in increasing food shelf-life. At present, conventional polymers could be substituted with biobased food packaging materials in several areas such as meat products, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, frozen food, dry food, snacks, ready to eat food and drinks. In spite of the enormous amount of published scientific articles and reviews on polysaccharide employment in food shelf-life extension, there is a comparatively limited number of patents issued from industry. Several polysaccharides alone or in combination with other substances are proposed in the patents aimed to extend the food shelf-life of fresh food, reducing modifications in color, flavor and taste. In this review, we will focus on polysaccharides extracted from biomass and their applications in the food industry, in particular on food shelf-life extension. The patents issued in the last twenty years for polysaccharides and their applications in food shelf-life extension will be reviewed.

Siciliano R.A.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Mazzeo M.F.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2012

Probiotics are living microorganisms that confer beneficial effects to human health when supplied in adequate amounts, by promoting digestion and uptake of dietary nutrients, strengthening intestinal barrier function, modulating immune response and enhancing antagonism towards pathogens. The purpose of the present article is to focus on microbial proteomics, pointing out its usefulness in the investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying probiotic effects. It deals, in particular, with molecular strategies responsible for adaptation to the harsh physical-chemical environment of the gastro-intestinal tract, bacterial adhesion to host epithelial cells and intestinal mucosa and probiotic immunomodulatory properties, as analyzed by proteomics in the past few years. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Iacomino G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Picariello G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | D'Agostino L.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2012

Polyamines (PAs) are linear polycations that are involved in many biological functions. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are highly represented in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and have been the subject of decades of extensive research. Nevertheless, their capability to modulate the structure and functions of DNA has not been fully elucidated. We found that polyamines self-assemble with phosphate ions in the cell nucleus and generate three forms of compounds referred to as Nuclear Aggregates of Polyamines (NAPs), which interact with genomic DNA. In an in vitro setting that mimics the nuclear environment, the assembly of PAs occurs within well-defined ratios, independent of the presence of the DNA template. Strict structural and functional analogies exist between the in vitro NAPs (ivNAPs) and their cellular homologues. Atomic force microscopy showed that ivNAPs, as theoretically predicted, have a cyclic structure, and in the presence of DNA, they form a tube-like arrangement around the double helix. Features of the interaction between ivNAPs and genomic DNA provide evidence for the decisive role of "natural" NAPs in regulating important aspects of DNA physiology, such as conformation, protection and packaging, thus suggesting a new vision of the functions that PAs accomplish in the cell nucleus. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Di Stasio M.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences
Current drug delivery | Year: 2013

There is a growing interest in the use of anticariogenic and antimicrobial agents to prevent demineralization and promote remineralization of dental enamel for the prevention of oral diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel chewing-system containing as Casein-Phosphopeptides-Amorphous-Calcium-Phosphate (CPP-ACP) as Quercetin (Qt) and evaluate their release using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro and in vivo experimental protocols were designed to test the percentages of Ca from CPP-ACP and Qt released with time and their delivery rate from a chewing gum. The in vitro experiments were performed using a specifically designed chewing apparatus to test the release of Ca and Qt in artificial saliva in function of chewed time, while the in vivo experiments required a chew-out method with volunteers and the residual CPP-ACP and Qt present in the chewed gums was analyzed. This study demonstrated that both CPP-ACP'Ca and Qt were released during chewing although CPP-ACP'Ca was released from the chewing gum in a slower and more controlled manner than Qt. They were also both effectively retained in the oral cavity for all the investigated chewing time and according to their monitored release concentrations they were able to serve as a novel antiplaque agent. This research concludes that both drugs were efficiently released during the mastication process to fully exploit their anti-carious activity.

Russo G.L.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Russo M.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | Spagnuolo C.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences
Food and Function | Year: 2014

Quercetin is a flavonoid, of the subclass flavonols, possessing potential anticancer properties. It has often been defined as a functionally pleiotropic molecule because it can simultaneously target multiple pathways bypassing or ameliorating the onset of drug resistance in malignant cells. In this context, we reviewed the sometimes paradoxical antioxidant properties of quercetin and the functional role of its glucuronide and/or sulfate conjugates to discuss the low bioavailability of the molecule measured in vivo. We recently demonstrated that quercetin is able to sensitize several leukemia cell lines as well as B cells isolated from patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to death ligand agonists (anti-CD95 and rTRAIL). The flavonol also potentiates the effect of canonical and innovative chemotherapeutic drugs (fludarabine and ABT-737) against CLL. The apoptosis-enhancing activity of quercetin in cell lines and B-CLL cells depends upon the modulated expression and activity of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic protein belonging to the Bcl-2 family. Herein, we suggest that the pleotropic activity of quercetin in CLL is obtained by the direct inhibition of key protein kinases, which positively regulate Mcl-1 activity and by indirect downregulation of Mcl-1 mRNA and protein levels acting on its mRNA stability and proteasome-mediated degradation. Finally, we highlighted the pros and cons of quercetin supplementation in cancer therapy and in prevention. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Cozzolino R.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | De Giulio B.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Triacylglycerols (TAG) are the most important group of compounds present in vegetable oils. These biomolecules, determining the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of the oils, are considered to be good fingerprints for quality and authenticity control. Therefore, TAGs characterization is a very important task in edible oil field, which has been undertaken by different analytical methods. The analysis of vegetable oils is still dominated by classic determinations, which are however laborious and time-consuming and cannot be used routinely. More recently, advances in MS instrumentations coupled with online separation techniques and data processing have contributed to great expansion of MS in oil study, allowing the development of innovative analytical approaches that exhibit higher sensitivity, accuracy and rapidity in vegetable oils investigations. In the present contribution, a review of the most relevant applications of novel mass spectrometric techniques, such as ESI and MALDI, both alone and hyphenated with HPLC, used for analysis of the complex TAGs mixture of edible oils is illustrated. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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