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Bonsignore M.R.,University of Palermo | Bonsignore M.R.,CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy | McNicholas W.T.,St Vincents University Hospital | Montserrat J.M.,Sleep Laboratory | Eckel J.,German Diabetes Center
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

A European Respiratory Society research seminar on "Metabolic alterations in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)" was jointly organised in October 2009 together with two EU COST actions (Cardiovascular risk in the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, action B26, and Adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome, action BM0602) in order to discuss the interactions between obesity and OSA. Such interactions can be particularly significant in the pathogenesis ofmetabolic abnormalities and in increased cardiovascular risk in OSA patients. However, studying the respective role of OSA and obesity is difficult in patients, making it necessary to refer to animal models or in vitro systems. Since most OSA patients are obese, their management requires a multidisciplinary approach. This review summarises some aspects of the pathophysiology and treatment of obesity, and the possible effects of sleep loss on metabolism. OSA-associated metabolic dysfunction (insulin resistance, liver dysfunction and atherogenic dyslipidaemia) is discussed from the perspective of both obesity and OSA in adults and children. Finally, the effects of treatment for obesity or OSA, or both, on cardio-metabolic variables are summarised. Further interdisciplinary research is needed in order to develop new comprehensive treatment approaches aimed at reducing sleep disordered breathing, obesity and cardiovascular risk. Copyright©ERS 2012. Source


Profita M.,CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology | Year: 2010

United airway disease (UAD) concept proposed that asthma and rhinitis are both different clinical manifestation of a single inflammatory process. The aim of this study is to assess in upper and lower airways the level of inflammation and oxidative stress and to investigate the relationship between biomarkers in persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) and in concomitant asthma with PER. By a crosssectional study we measured oral and nasal (FENO) and oral and nasal EBC 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 in children with PER (n=14) and with PER and concomitant intermittent asthma (IA; n=25), mild persistent asthma (mA; n=28), moderate persistent asthma (MA; n=13) and in Healthy Controls (HCs; n=13). Oral and nasal FENO concentrations were increased in children with PER, IA, mA and MA when compared with HCs. Nasal 8-isoprostane was higher in EBC of children with PER and asthma than in HCs. Oral and nasal LTB4 were higher in EBC of children with PER and mA than in HCs. Oral and nasal PGE2 concentrations were higher in EBC of children with PER than in HCs. Positive correlations between oral and nasal biomarkers were found in IA for LTB4 and PGE2, in mA for FENO, 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2, and in MA for PGE2. No correlations were observed in children with PER and HCs. Our results suggest that non-invasive markers of inflammation and oxidative stress might be useful to study the relationships between oral and nasal compartments in allergic children with PER and concomitant asthma with the aim of defining the UAD. Source


Lampiasi N.,CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy | Montana G.,CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy
Immunobiology | Year: 2015

Identification of new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactive molecules is an important tool for selecting effective formulations for the treatment of inflammation. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated, is associated with an inflammation response. Activated macrophages produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. In the present study we have showed that pre-treatment with Ferulic Acid (FA) reduces NO accumulation in the culture medium of LPS-induced macrophage cells. Moreover, real-time experiments have revealed that FA has an inhibitory effect at the transcriptional level on the expression of some inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNF-α and iNOS and an activation effect on the expression of some antioxidant molecules such as Metallothioneins (MT-1, MT-2). Importantly, we have found that FA reduced the translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) into the nuclei through a reduction of the expression of phosphorylated IKK and consequently inhibited IL-6 and NF-κB promoter activity in a luciferase assay. Our data clearly suggest that FA anti-inflammatory effects are mainly mediated through IKK/NF-κB signalling pathway. Therefore, FA could represent a new natural drug extremely useful to improve anti-inflammatory treatment. © 2015. Source


Bolignano D.,CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy | Zoccali C.,CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2012

Aims: Glitazones rank now among the most used hypoglycemic agents in patients with type-2 diabetes. This systematic review focuses on the cardiovascular and renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients treated with these drugs. Data synthesis: Data from randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis indicate that glitazones (particularly rosiglitazone) may increase the risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure and cardiovascular death in type-2 diabetics. Observational studies looking at survival and cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic patients with kidney failure show controversial results. Studies in experimental models and clinical studies suggest that glitazones may have favorable effects on renal disease progression, because these drugs coherently reduce urinary albumin excretion and proteinuria in diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathies. No clinical trial based on clinical end-points like kidney failure has until now tested the effect of glitazones on the evolution of chronic renal failure in these patients. Conclusions: Whether the use of glitazones has a positive or a negative impact upon major cardiovascular and renal outcomes in diabetic patients remains an open, unanswered question. Specific studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of glitazones in a high risk population like type-2 diabetics with chronic kidney disease. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Pinsino A.,CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy | Roccheri M.C.,University of Palermo | Matranga V.,CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy
Marine Environmental Research | Year: 2014

In the marine environment, manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. In earlier reports we found that the exposure of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos to manganese produced phenotypes with no skeleton. In addition, manganese interfered with calcium uptake, perturbed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, affected the expression of skeletogenic genes, and caused an increase of the hsc70 and hsc60 protein levels. Here, we extended our studies focusing on the temporal activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and the proteolytic activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that manganese affects the stage-dependent dynamics of p38 MAPK activation and inhibits the total gelatin-auto-cleaving activity of MMPs, with the exclusion of the 90-85kDa and 68-58kDa MMPs, whose levels remain high all throughout development. Our findings correlate, for the first time to our knowledge, an altered activation pattern of the p38 MAPK with an aberrant MMP proteolytic activity in the sea urchin embryo. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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