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Nardelli B.B.,CNR Institute of atmospheric Sciences and Climate
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2012

A novel technique for the high-resolution interpolation of in situ sea surface salinity (SSS) observations is developed and tested. The method is based on an optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm that includes satellite sea surface temperature (SST) in the covariance estimation. The covariance function parameters (i.e., spatial, temporal, and thermal decorrelation scales) and the noise-to-signal ratio are determined empirically, by minimizing the root-mean-square error and mean error with respect to fully independent validation datasets. Both in situ observations and simulated data extracted from a numerical model output are used to run these tests. Different filters are applied to sea surface temperature data in order to remove the large-scale variability associated with air-sea interaction, because a high correlation between SST and SSS is expected only at small scales. In the tests performed on in situ observations, the lowest errors are obtained by selecting covariance decorrelation scales of 400 km, 6 days, and 2.758C, respectively, a noise-to-signal ratio of 0.01 and filtering the scales longer than 1000 km in the SST time series. This results in a root-mean-square error of;0.11 g kg21 and a mean error of;0.01 g kg21, that is, reducing the errors by;25% and;60%, respectively, with respect to the first guess. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

Olla P.,CNR Institute of atmospheric Sciences and Climate
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

The possibility of microscopic swimming by extraction of energy from an external flow is discussed, focusing on the migration of a simple trimer across a linear shear flow. The geometric properties of swimming, together with the possible generalization to the case of a vesicle, are analyzed. The mechanism of energy extraction from the flow appears to be the generalization to a discrete swimmer of the tank-treading regime of a vesicle. The swimmer takes advantage of the external flow by both extracting energy for swimming and "sailing" through it. The migration velocity is found to scale linearly in the stroke amplitude, and not quadratically as in a quiescent fluid. This effect turns out to be connected with the nonapplicability of the scallop theorem in the presence of external flow fields. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Olla P.,CNR Institute of atmospheric Sciences and Climate
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

The concept of preferential concentration in the transport of inertial particles by random velocity fields is extended to account for the possibility of zero correlation time and compressibility of the velocity field. It is shown that, in the case of an uncorrelated in time random velocity field, preferential concentration takes the form of a condition on the field history leading to the current particle positions. This generalized form of preferential concentration appears to be a necessary condition for clustering in the uncorrelated in time case. The standard interpretation of preferential concentration is recovered considering local time averages of the velocity field. In the compressible case, preferential concentration occurs in regions of negative divergence of the field. In the incompressible case, it occurs in regions of simultaneously high strain and negative field skewness. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Federico S.,CNR Institute of atmospheric Sciences and Climate
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science | Year: 2011

Since 2005, one-hour temperature forecasts for the Calabria region (southern Italy), modelled by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), have been issued by CRATI/ISAC-CNR (Consortium for Research and Application of Innovative Technologies/Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences of the National Research Council) and are available online at meteo.crati.it/ previsioni.html (every six hours). Beginning in June 2008, the horizontal resolution was enhanced to 2.5 km. In the present paper, forecast skill and accuracy are evaluated out to four days for the 2008 summer season (from 6 June to 30 September, 112 runs). For this purpose, gridded high horizontal resolution forecasts of minimum, mean, and maximum temperatures are evaluated against gridded analyses at the same horizontal resolution (2.5 km). Gridded analysis is based on Optimal Interpolation (OI) and uses the RAMS first-day temperature forecast as the background field. Observations from 87 thermometers are used in the analysis system. The analysis error is introduced to quantify the effect of using the RAMS first-day forecast as the background field in the OI analyses and to define the forecast error unambiguously, while spatial interpolation (SI) analysis is considered to quantify the statistics' sensitivity to the verifying analysis and to show the quality of the OI analyses for different background fields. Two case studies, the first one with a low (less than the 10th percentile) root mean square error (RMSE) in the OI analysis, the second with the largest RMSE of the whole period in the OI analysis, are discussed to show the forecast performance under two different conditions. Cumulative statistics are used to quantify forecast errors out to four days. Results show that maximum temperature has the largest RMSE, while minimum and mean temperature errors are similar. For the period considered, the OI analysis RMSEs for minimum, mean, and maximum temperatures vary from 1.8, 1.6, and 2.0 °C, respectively, for the first-day forecast, to 2.0, 1.9, and 2.6 °C, respectively, for the fourth-day forecast. Cumulative statistics are computed using both SI and OI analysis as reference. Although SI statistics likely overestimate the forecast error because they ignore the observational error, the study shows that the difference between OI and SI statistics is less than the analysis error. The forecast skill is compared with that of the persistence forecast. The Anomaly Correlation Coefficient (ACC) shows that the model forecast is useful for all days and parameters considered here, and it is able to capture day-to-day weather variability. The model forecast issued for the fourth day is still better than the first-day forecast of a 24-h persistence forecast, at least for mean and maximum temperature. The impact of using the RAMS first-day forecast as the background field in the OI analysis is quantified by comparing statistics computed with OI and SI analyses. Minimum temperature is more sensitive to the change in the analysis dataset as a consequence of its larger representative error. © Author(s) 2011.

Paparella F.,University of Salento | Von Hardenberg J.,CNR Institute of atmospheric Sciences and Climate
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We report on high-resolution, three-dimensional, high Rayleigh number, and low density ratio numerical simulations of fingering convection. We observe a previously unreported phenomenon of self-organization of fingers that cluster together to form larger-scale coherent structures. The flow ultimately forms density staircases, alternating well-mixed regions with fingering convective zones. We give evidence that the mechanical mixing induced by the clusters forms the staircases with a mechanism analogous to staircase formation in a stably stratified, nonconvective, stirred fluid. © 2012 American Physical Society.

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