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Stefano D.L.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
Disaster Advances | Year: 2017

In the first half of the fifth century B.C., a distinguished woman is buried in the necropolis of S. Donato in Ripacandida (Basilicata, Southern Italy). Her relatives choose to put into her grave a jug waterproof with a strange decorative motif (some stars in different colours and a lightning into a circle). This one, reinterpreted through topographical research and historical investigation, could be one of the first representations of an earthquake. This is probably the memory of an ancient event that it is not documented anywhere else and in the Vulture volcano area drew a 'hidden landscape'. Indeed, there the earthquake has been no longer considered for these centuries and the waterproof is useless to recognize another beginning to the historical seismic activity in this area. A 'hidden landscape' is more dangerous than other types of lands exposed to natural hazards because it is quiet and appears like every other site without problem. Instead of it in the past a real disaster was so big, dreadful and incredible that nobody wanted to remember it directly. Mentioning it again it could say to wake up the phenomena another time. Now there are only some tangible clues, very different but they give the same message: something happened there in the past and it is very important to know because it has to do the countdown.


Lasaponara R.,CNR Institute of Methodologies for Environmental analysis | Masini N.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2014

The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku(Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniqueswere applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities andperform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns.In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation(LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network witha clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The sameapproach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, inMollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfectaccordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely matchthose of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questionson the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys andarchaeogeophyical investigations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Lettieri M.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites | Frigione M.,University of Salento
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

The effects of exposure to different humid environments in a commercial cold-cured epoxy adhesive were investigated. Samples were exposed up to one month to 55%, 75% and 100% relative humidity (RH) or immersed in liquid water, at a constant temperature (23°C). Weight changes, thermal and mechanical properties before and at different stages of the aging, were discussed. In the examined aging conditions, absorbed water remained below 1% and saturation level was not achieved. Plasticization, reactivation of curing reactions and erasure of physical aging were observed in the specimens subjected to the different humidity regimes, all affecting both the thermal and the mechanical properties of the aged samples: while the T g was influenced by plasticization mainly at shorter times of exposure and by post-curing at longer treatment times, the mechanical characteristics were less affected by these phenomena. These effects were found more pronounced at humidity levels higher than 75% RH. Doubly hydrogen-bonded water molecules linked to the network also influenced the T g of the system, while they did not affect noticeably their flexural properties. Finally, the effects of water exposure can be regarded as equivalent to those of a thermal treatment at temperature around the T g, i.e. both leading to an erasure of the physical aging. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Leucci G.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites | De Giorgi L.,University of Salento
Exploration Geophysics | Year: 2010

The coastal area Marina di Capilungo located ∼50km south-west of Lecce (Italy) is one of the sites at greatest geological risk in the Salento peninsula. In the past few decades, Marina di Capilungo has been affected by a series of subsidence events, which have led in some cases to the partial collapse of buildings and road surfaces. These events had both social repercussions, causing alarm and emergency situations, and economic ones in terms of the funds for restoration. With the aim of mapping the subsurface karstic features, and so to assess the dimensions of the phenomena in order to prevent and/or limit the ground subsidence events, integrated geophysical surveys were undertaken in an area of ∼70000m2 at Marina di Capilungo. Large volume voids such as karstic cavities are excellent targets for microgravity surveys. The absent mass of the void creates a quantifiable disturbance in the earth's gravitational field, with the magnitude of the disturbance directly proportional to the volume of the void. Smaller shallow voids can be detected using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Microgravimetric and GPR geophysical methods were therefore used. An accurate interpretation was obtained using small station spacing and accurate geophysical data processing. The interpretation was facilitated by combining the modelling of the data with the geological and topographic information for explored caves. The GPR method can complement the microgravimetric technique in determining cavity depths and in verifying the presence of off-line features and numerous areas of small cavities, which may be difficult to be resolved with only microgravimetric data. However, the microgravimetric can complement GPR in delineating with accuracy the shallow cavities in a wide area where GPR measurements are difficult. Furthermore, microgravity surveys in an urban environment require effective and accurate consideration of the effects given by infrastructures, such as buildings, as well as those given by topography, near a gravity station. The acquired negative anomaly in the residual Bouguer anomalies field suggested the presence of possible void features. GPR and modelling data were used to estimate the depth and shape of the anomalous source. © ASEG 2010.


Lettieri M.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites | Masieri M.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2014

In this study, two commercial sacrificial anti-graffiti systems, provided as water emulsion, were applied on a highly porous stone. The behavior of the anti-graffiti treatments was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR-FTIR), colorimetric tests, and water static contact angle measurements. The presence of a protective coating enhanced the removal of paint sprayed on the stone. However, penetration of the staining agent below the surface, due to the high porosity of the substrate, caused difficulties in eliminating the paint. In fact, repeated cleaning procedures, involving hot water, mechanical action, and chemical removers, did not allow a complete removal of the paint. The examined systems behaved against graffiti in different ways. No affinity between the wax-based product and the paint was observed; nevertheless, this behavior did not result in good anti-graffiti performances. On the contrary, the penetration of the paint into the fluorine-based coating yielded a good anti-graffiti effectiveness, since the stain was easily eliminated from the surfaces. The anti-graffiti coatings survived in limited areas after the cleaning processes, although the studied compounds are suggested as sacrificial products. Such behavior may affect the maintenance activities, when the surface is no longer protected and the coating need to be renewed, since compatibility problems, as well as harmful accumulation, could occur because of further treatments on these surfaces. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Gabellone F.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

This paper illustrates some results obtained by the IBAM ITLab in the Cultura e Turismo: DiCet project financed with National Operational Program (Programmi Operativi Nazionali – PON) funds. In this project procedures were developed to produce technical models for an efficient management of 3D and 2D resources, and to define best practices and methodical protocols for quality certification and process standardization, capable of increase cross-sector dialogue. The sites were identified as a function of a supply-and-demand analysis with regard to a placement on the market of innovative models and services based on the creation of hyper-realistic digital models and virtual scenarios. Particular attention was given to those uses that permit greater visibility, protection, and conservation of cultural assets characterized by difficult access, vulnerability, seismic risk, hydro-geological risk, etc. In view of this, innovative models and tools were designed and developed for capitalizing on and exploiting cultural heritage, understood as an integrated and complex system conceived as a holistic model strongly based on the use of ICT technologies. Virtual enjoyment is understood here as a form of representing reality that accelerates and strengthens cognitive capacities, which is to say it becomes capable of generating extremely sensitive, “virtuous” learning processes based on metaphors of the real world, and thus easy to use and understand. Operationally, our working group has made some Augmented Reality solutions available; these enable the interactive display – directly in situ and especially on mobile devices – of archaeological monuments integrated within the urban fabric. A simple solution allows the user to display an interactive 3D reconstruction directly on the real site, using the latest-generation gyroscope function. In addition to this, certain inaccessible monuments of the cities of Lecce and Catania have been virtualized, mainly using image-based technologies and ultra-realistic laser scanning, to allow them to be visited remotely both via smartphone and on large virtual theatres. In any case the virtual reconstruction of the ancient monuments is the starting point of communication process and represent the point of interest around which every technological solution is proposed. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Lettieri M.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
Vibrational Spectroscopy | Year: 2015

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a versatile analytical method, very useful in many fields. Although a crucial step in producing good spectra is the use of the appropriate technique, the acquisition mode is sometimes not accurately selected and the results are partial or lacking. In recent years, FT-IR analysis has been proposed as a screening method for characterization of archaeological potteries and identification of the residues on these artifacts before turning to destructive, more expensive, and time-consuming techniques. In this study, a set of pottery shards, classified as fragments of amphorae, was subjected to FT-IR analyses. The results obtained from different sampling procedures and different spectra acquisition modes, were examined and compared. The as-received ceramic fragments were subjected to micro attenuated total reflectance (μ-ATR) analyses. Investigations in diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) mode were performed on samples collected by abrading the surfaces of the shards with abrasive paper. Samples scraped from either the surfaces of the pottery fragments or the interior of the ceramic body, were analyzed in transmission mode as a powder in KBr pellets or after extraction with acetone. The sampling by abrasion of the surface with an abrasive disk, and consequently the analyses in DRIFT mode, were successful only in identifying the inorganic compounds coming from the pottery and/or the environment, while materials related to the content of the jar were not detected. Also the analyses in transmission mode provided information mainly about inorganic materials, which, even where in a limited amount, masked the signals of organic compounds. Just an extraction with a solvent made it possible a more detailed, but still partial, characterization of these organic substances. On the contrary, the content of the jar was easily detected using the μ-ATR mode, even in areas where no residue was observed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


The paper deals with the current situation of digital archives of aerial photographs, space photos and satellite imagery, in relation to the importance of this documentation in the archaeological research. The data-set is very huge but, for different reasons (unavailability, costs, difficulties in the access to digital archives), the usability is often problematic. The primary requirement is surely to digitize existing archives and to georeference images, with the dual aim to ensure their dissemination and, above all, the preservation. Then, it would be desirable to network each other the various Italian digital archives, which would then possibly linked also to foreign ones. So, the objectives that should be pursued are make it easy to consult the existing digital archives belonging to Public Bodies and allow scholars a free or low cost access to the data of private companies, by use with exclusive purpose of scientific research. © 2015, CEUR-WS. All rights reserved.


Leucci G.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
Exploration Geophysics | Year: 2010

How does the tree root system develop in the subsoil? This question is important to the development and urban planning disciplines, especially when the trees occur near building foundations and underground utilities. This interest is based on the potential for buildings to suffer subsidence or structural damage from nearby trees. The inspection of both the extension of the tree roots and the degree of decay in wood are still undertaken using classical single-point and destructive methods. However, as pointed out by several authors, geophysical methods provide an alternative method of studying root architecture in a non-invasive fashion. In this paper, three geophysical methods were applied to produce 3D images of total root volume in the soil in an urban environment. The three geophysical methods used were ground-penetrating radar, electrical-resistivity tomography, and seismic refraction tomography. Each of the geophysical methods alone is able to isolate root system but cannot resolve the ring structures. © 2010 ASEG.


Masini N.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites | Persico R.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites | Rizzo E.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Journal of Geophysics and Engineering | Year: 2010

In this paper three case histories of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for the monitoring of historical buildings are presented. They aim to present the specific valence of the GPR in the field of the diagnostic of historical buildings, which is a promising field of research, due to the increasing awareness of the relevance (even economic) of the cultural heritage. The presented GPR prospecting cases have been performed on three different constructive elements typical of historical buildings (a wall, a masonry pillar and a marble column) in order to be the answer to different problems such as the characterization of the masonry, the detection of cracks and the imaging of metallic reinforcement bars. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

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