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Gabellone F.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

This paper illustrates some results obtained by the IBAM ITLab in the Cultura e Turismo: DiCet project financed with National Operational Program (Programmi Operativi Nazionali – PON) funds. In this project procedures were developed to produce technical models for an efficient management of 3D and 2D resources, and to define best practices and methodical protocols for quality certification and process standardization, capable of increase cross-sector dialogue. The sites were identified as a function of a supply-and-demand analysis with regard to a placement on the market of innovative models and services based on the creation of hyper-realistic digital models and virtual scenarios. Particular attention was given to those uses that permit greater visibility, protection, and conservation of cultural assets characterized by difficult access, vulnerability, seismic risk, hydro-geological risk, etc. In view of this, innovative models and tools were designed and developed for capitalizing on and exploiting cultural heritage, understood as an integrated and complex system conceived as a holistic model strongly based on the use of ICT technologies. Virtual enjoyment is understood here as a form of representing reality that accelerates and strengthens cognitive capacities, which is to say it becomes capable of generating extremely sensitive, “virtuous” learning processes based on metaphors of the real world, and thus easy to use and understand. Operationally, our working group has made some Augmented Reality solutions available; these enable the interactive display – directly in situ and especially on mobile devices – of archaeological monuments integrated within the urban fabric. A simple solution allows the user to display an interactive 3D reconstruction directly on the real site, using the latest-generation gyroscope function. In addition to this, certain inaccessible monuments of the cities of Lecce and Catania have been virtualized, mainly using image-based technologies and ultra-realistic laser scanning, to allow them to be visited remotely both via smartphone and on large virtual theatres. In any case the virtual reconstruction of the ancient monuments is the starting point of communication process and represent the point of interest around which every technological solution is proposed. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Scardozzi G.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
International Journal of Geophysics | Year: 2011

The paper is concerned with the contribution that a rich documentation of multitemporal optical satellite images with high resolution provides for the knowledge of the five great Assyrian capital cities (Ashur, Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta, Kalhu, Dur-Sharrukin, and Nineveh, in northern Iraq). These images also allow monitoring changes of landscape in the higher course of the Tigris during the last half century and document damages in archaeological sites during the two Gulf Wars. The data set, available for each city, consists of panchromatic and multispectral images taken between 2001 and 2007 by modern commercial satellites (Ikonos-2, QuickBird-2, and WorldView-1) and of panchromatic photographs of U.S. spy satellites operating between 1965 and 1969 (Corona KH-4B and Gambit KH-7). These photos were taken before diffusion of mechanized agriculture and the expansion of urban areas, so they are very useful to document many archaeological features and the landscape that has been modified in the last decades, as shown by recent satellite images. © 2011 Giuseppe Scardozzi.

Lettieri M.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
Vibrational Spectroscopy | Year: 2015

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a versatile analytical method, very useful in many fields. Although a crucial step in producing good spectra is the use of the appropriate technique, the acquisition mode is sometimes not accurately selected and the results are partial or lacking. In recent years, FT-IR analysis has been proposed as a screening method for characterization of archaeological potteries and identification of the residues on these artifacts before turning to destructive, more expensive, and time-consuming techniques. In this study, a set of pottery shards, classified as fragments of amphorae, was subjected to FT-IR analyses. The results obtained from different sampling procedures and different spectra acquisition modes, were examined and compared. The as-received ceramic fragments were subjected to micro attenuated total reflectance (μ-ATR) analyses. Investigations in diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) mode were performed on samples collected by abrading the surfaces of the shards with abrasive paper. Samples scraped from either the surfaces of the pottery fragments or the interior of the ceramic body, were analyzed in transmission mode as a powder in KBr pellets or after extraction with acetone. The sampling by abrasion of the surface with an abrasive disk, and consequently the analyses in DRIFT mode, were successful only in identifying the inorganic compounds coming from the pottery and/or the environment, while materials related to the content of the jar were not detected. Also the analyses in transmission mode provided information mainly about inorganic materials, which, even where in a limited amount, masked the signals of organic compounds. Just an extraction with a solvent made it possible a more detailed, but still partial, characterization of these organic substances. On the contrary, the content of the jar was easily detected using the μ-ATR mode, even in areas where no residue was observed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lasaponara R.,CNR Institute of Methodologies for Environmental analysis | Masini N.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2014

The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku(Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniqueswere applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities andperform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns.In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation(LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network witha clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The sameapproach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, inMollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfectaccordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely matchthose of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questionson the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys andarchaeogeophyical investigations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Leucci G.,CNR Institute of Archeological Heritage - Monuments and Sites
Exploration Geophysics | Year: 2010

How does the tree root system develop in the subsoil? This question is important to the development and urban planning disciplines, especially when the trees occur near building foundations and underground utilities. This interest is based on the potential for buildings to suffer subsidence or structural damage from nearby trees. The inspection of both the extension of the tree roots and the degree of decay in wood are still undertaken using classical single-point and destructive methods. However, as pointed out by several authors, geophysical methods provide an alternative method of studying root architecture in a non-invasive fashion. In this paper, three geophysical methods were applied to produce 3D images of total root volume in the soil in an urban environment. The three geophysical methods used were ground-penetrating radar, electrical-resistivity tomography, and seismic refraction tomography. Each of the geophysical methods alone is able to isolate root system but cannot resolve the ring structures. © 2010 ASEG.

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