Time filter

Source Type

Lufrano F.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Staiti P.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2010

In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of mesoporous carbons, which were obtained using SBA-15 silica as the template material and sucrose as the carbon source. The prepared silica template and mesoporous carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption, low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Synthesized carbons were used to prepare composite electrodes for solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of mesoporous carbons in supercapacitors were studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The study showed that a value of specific capacitance of 132 F g-1 (for a single electrode) was obtained with the CMK-3A mesoporous carbon, which was 68% higher than that of an activated carbon that was used as a reference material. The superior performance was 127% (12.05 μF cm-2 vs. 5.3 μF cm-2) when the double-layer capacitance of the mesoporous carbon was compared to that of the reference carbon. These findings for the mesoporous carbon-based supercapacitor were explained on the basis of a high pseudo-capacitance and other physico-chemical properties of this carbon, such as the pore structure, accessibility of pores to the electrolyte, and surface wettability by surface functional groups. All of these properties were improved compared to those of the activated carbon. © 2010 by ESG.


Maggio G.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Cacciola G.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano
Fuel | Year: 2012

In this paper, a predictive model based on a variant of the multi-cyclic Hubbert approach is applied to forecast future trend in world fossil fuel production. Starting from historical data on oil (crude and NGL), natural gas, and coal production, and taking into consideration three possible scenarios for the global Ultimate (i.e. cumulative production plus remaining reserves plus undiscovered resources), this approach allowed us to determine when these important energy sources should peak and start to decline. In particular, considering the most likely scenarios, our estimated peak values were: 30 Gb/year in 2015 for oil, 132 Tcf/year in 2035 for natural gas, and 4.5 Gtoe/year in 2052 for coal. A plateau is likely to occur in the case of natural gas, if the global Ultimate is high. A comparison of the Multi-Hubbert Variant (MHV) approach used in this paper with both the Single-cycle Hubbert (SH) and the "original" Multi-cyclic Hubbert (MH) approach has also been done. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Staiti P.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Lufrano F.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2010

A hybrid supercapacitor based on manganese oxide, activated carbon and polymer electrolyte was developed and electrochemically investigated. The capacitive performance obtained from the polymer electrolyte based supercapacitor was similar to that of an aqueous electrolyte based supercapacitor, tested for comparison in the same operative conditions. A durability test carried out for 2500 cycles showed stable and slowly increasing performance. The specific capacitance of hybrid supercapacitor was 48 F g -1 (192 F g-1 as a mean one electrode capacitance), in which that of the positive electrode was 384 F g-1 of MnO2 and that of negative electrode 117 F g-1 of carbon. The impedance analysis evidenced that although the polymer electrolyte based hybrid supercapacitor showed higher resistance compared to that of the liquid electrolyte based supercapacitor, this drawback was counterbalanced by better ion transport features, which were evident at lower frequencies, where similar values of capacitances were obtained from the different supercapacitors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fiore V.,University of Palermo | Valenza A.,University of Palermo | Di Bella G.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano
Composites Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The aim of this paper is to examine the use of artichoke fibres as potential reinforcement in polymer composites. The fibres are extracted from the stem of artichoke plant, which grows in Southern Sicily. In order to use these lignocellulosic fibres as potential reinforcement in polymer composites, it is fundamental to investigate their microstructure, chemical composition and mechanical properties. Therefore, the morphology of artichoke fibres was investigated through electron microscopy, the thermal behaviour through thermogravimetric analysis and the real density through a helium pycnometer. The chemical composition of the natural fibres in terms of cellulose, lignin, and ash contents was determinated by using standard test methods. Finally, the mechanical characterization was carried out through single fibre tensile tests, analysing the results through statistical analysis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Frusteri F.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Frusteri L.,Dip. di Chimica Industriale ed Ing. Materiali | Cannilla C.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Bonura G.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Etherification of glycerol (GLY) with isobutylene (IB) to produce biofuels was investigated in liquid phase using spherical silica supported Hyflon® catalysts (SSHC). As reference catalyst, Amberlyst® 15 (A-15) acid ion-exchange resin was used. Experiments were carried out in batch mode at a reaction temperature ranging from 323 to 343K. SSHC were found to be very effective systems in etherification of glycerol with IB, providing cumulative di- and tri-ethers yields higher than that obtained by using A-15 catalyst. Furthermore, such catalysts were stable and easily reusable; no leaching of active phase was observed. The formation of poly-substituted ethers, suitable additives for conventional fuels, was favored by operating at an isobutylene/glycerol molar ratio >3 and low reaction time (<6h); however, the concentration of mono-ether reached values lower than 3wt.% only when SSHC catalyst was used. Turnover frequency of glycerol (TOF GLY) highlighted that SSHC systems were much more active than A-15 catalyst: the accessibility and nature of active sites and the surface properties of catalysts were indicated as the main factors affecting the catalytic behavior. A lower acid site density of SSHC than that of A-15 catalyst was decisive in preventing the occurrence of oligomerization reaction which leads to the formation of di-isobutylene (DIB), precursors of gummy products. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Lufrano F.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Staiti P.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2010

This paper reports on the synthesis of the mesoporous CMK-3 carbon carried out using the SBA-15 silica as a template and its chemical modification by nitric acid treatment at room temperature. The nitric-acid-modified carbon, CMK-3AN, was used to prepare other carbon samples by thermal treatments at 700 and 900 °C, which modify the surface properties of carbons by a partial removal of oxygenated surface groups. A series of composite electrodes was prepared from modified and unmodified carbons and used as the active material for solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical study carried out in two electrode configurations showed that the insertion of oxygen-containing functional groups in template carbon imparted changing on the capacitance features, enhancing also the electrode/electrolyte interface. However, the one disadvantage of acid treatment was that the carbon and electrodes showed a slight higher electronic resistance. The nitric-acid-modified carbon electrodes (CMK-3AN) showed better capacitive performances (162 F g-1; on the basis of the weight of the active carbon materials for one electrode) than those of the untreated CMK-3 carbon (132 F g-1) and much higher values than the carbon samples treated at 700 °C (CMK-3AN7) and 900 °C (CMK-3AN9), which showed values of 82 and 49 F g-1, respectively. The high total capacitance of the former carbon originates from its higher pseudo-capacitance, which derived from the presence of electrochemically active oxygen-containing functional groups. These groups were partially eliminated during the thermal treatments at 700 and 900 °C. As a consequence to this, the supercapacitor using the carbon treated at the highest temperature (CMK-3AN9) showed a specific capacitance of about 250% lower than that with the nitric-acid-treated carbon (CMK-3AN). © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Bonura G.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Cannilla C.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Frusteri F.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2012

NiCu/Ce 0.9Gd 0.1O 2-δ (CGO) catalysts were prepared by different techniques with the aim to develop a bifunctional catalyst, characterized both by catalytic and anodic properties for integrated biogas SOFC process. Catalytic measurements have been performed in CO 2 reforming of CH 4, using a fixed bed reactor at a reaction temperature ranging from 650 to 800°C. Results revealed that NiCu/CGO system is a promising catalyst for the conversion of biogas mixtures at temperature suitable to be used in low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC). Characterization data clearly demonstrated that NiCu alloy forms by reduction of NiCuO x mixed oxide patches, while catalytic testing showed carbon-free operation at 800°C (GHSV=6600h -1) when " CO 2-rich" biogas mixtures are used. By a thermodynamic evaluation of the different reaction kinetics, the poor efficiency of the catalyst in promoting the carbon gasification by CO 2 reaction has been assessed. Characterization of spent catalysts shed light both on the reasons of deactivation phenomena occurring with time over the catalysts and on the deactivation kinetics under the adopted experimental conditions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Patent
CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Date: 2010-11-24

A machine for packing wine in single-dose containers, comprising: starting from a sheet of multilayer paper material, means (2-16) for realising a container (100) of a stand-up type; a filling device (7, 8, 10) predisposed for introducing a determined quantity of wine into the container (100); closing means (12), predisposed for closing the opening (106) after introduction of the wine; characterised in that the filling device (7, 8, 10) comprises a constricting device (7), predisposed for exerting an action which reciprocally nears bottom ends (103a, 103b) of the container (100) such as to extend the bottom fold (104) in a transversal direction with respect to the median line (105), and a tractor device (8), predisposed for reciprocally distancing the main folds (101, 102) of the container (100).


Patent
CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Date: 2016-10-12

System and parts for fast filling of cans / containers like aerosol containers, in which a valve is clicked-in and does not need a mounting cup, a container / can ending towards the inside of the dome with a sharp or rounded edge, in which the pressurizing component is filled when passing between the valve and the wall of the container dome when overcoming the resistance of a special gasket.


Patent
CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | Date: 2012-04-18

A sphere (Fig. 1, 2: 10) for a hand-held puzzle game comprising an inner support frame (Fig. 4: 11); a plurality of plugs (Fig. 1, 2, 3, 8, 9: 12), sliding along the spherical surface (10a) of the sphere (10); a plurality of spherical caps (Fig. 1, 2, 3, 6A, 6B, 7: 14) pivoting on the same spherical surface (10a), each one defining, along an edge (14a) thereof, a plurality of seats (14b) to receive and accommodate the sliding plugs (12); and a plurality of fixed cover elements (Fig. 1, 2, 5: 17), secured to the inner support frame (11), which cover those areas of the spherical surface (10a) which are not occupied by the sliding plugs (12) and pivoting spherical caps (14); wherein each sliding plug (12) has at least two areas coloured in different colours (M-R, M-V, B-G, etc.), each spherical pivoting cap (14) has a plurality of coloured areas, particularly four, in different colours (V-A-V-Z, M-R-B-G, etc.), corresponding to the seats (14b) for the plugs, and each fixed cover element (17) and coloured in only one colour (A, R, V, M, etc.).

Loading CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano collaborators
Loading CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano collaborators