CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage

Milano, Italy

CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage

Milano, Italy
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Fratini F.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Pecchioni E.,University of Florence | Rovero L.,University of Florence | Tonietti U.,University of Florence
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2011

In Calabria (Italy) original examples of earth buildings called "casedde" are present distinguished from the houses realized in stone or bricks that are indicated with the term "casini" or "turri". The historical centres of Sambiase and Nicastro, villages which belong to the municipality of Lamezia Terme, in the Tyrrhenian side of Catanzaro province, are an example of urban centres in which there are buildings of 4-5 floors completely or partially realized in earth bricks (adobe) connected with a mortar made of clay and lime.In the present study the mineralogical, physical and mechanical characterization of adobe samples coming from seven different buildings in a poor state of conservation has been carried out together with an analysis of the "Local Earth" for comparison.The analyses showed the absence of any mixing intervention in the earth except for the possible addition of straw. It was also possible to discover which optimum amount of clay is needed in order to have the best mechanical characteristics for that kind of earth. Moreover it was possible to emphasize that the new bricks, realized with the earth taken where the local masons indicated the presence of material suitable for the realisation of earth bricks, exhibit a mechanical behaviour similar to that of the old bricks with the best mechanical characteristics. Such earth can surely be utilised in consolidation interventions where substitutions and partial reconstructions of bricks are needed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Tapete D.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Casagli N.,University of Florence
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

RADARSAT-1 data stacks processed by means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) over the central archaeological area of Rome, Italy, and radar-interpreted according to the procedure of radar mapping by Tapete and Cigna (2012), were re-analyzed by applying the Deviation Index DI1 defined by Cigna et al. (2012). Our tests aimed to assess how an early computational identification of deformation trends within the displacement time series can support strategies of preventive conservation. The suitability of such semi-automated method for trend recognition is discussed with regard to a traditional approach of manual check of PSI time series, at the scale of single measurement point. Results from the case studies of Palatine and Oppian Hills are presented in this paper, examining both advantages and drawbacks offered by the implementation of such type of computational approach. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Rosi L.,University of Florence | Frediani M.,University of Florence | Frediani P.,University of Florence | Frediani P.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2010

The "one-pot" homogeneous hydrogenation of γ-butyrolactone and succinic or fumaric acid to 1,4-butandiol, have been successfully realized in the presence of the catalytic system [Ru(acac)3]/triphos] [triphos:MeC(CH2PPh2)3]. The influence of some reaction parameters on the regioselectivity and the rate of the reaction were investigated. The study was then extended to the "one-pot" synthesis of isotopomeric 1,4-butandiols by deuteration of the appropriate substrates in a deuterated solvent. 1,4-butandiol-d8, which was fully characterized, was obtained with 96% yield and 100% isotopomeric selectivity. A mechanism was proposed to rationalize the role of catalyst, solvent and deuterium distribution. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ugolini A.,University of Florence | Ungherese G.,University of Florence | Ciofini M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Lapucci A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Camaiti M.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2013

Adults of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator were fed with dry fish food mixed with polyethylene microspheres (diameter 10-45μm). Observations of homogenized guts revealed the presence of microspheres independently of their dimensions. The gut resident time (GRT) was recorded and most of the microspheres are expelled in 24h. Microspheres are totally expelled in one week. Preliminary investigations did not show any consequence of microsphere ingestion on the survival capacity in the laboratory. FT-IR analyses carried out on faeces of freshly collected individuals revealed the presence of polyethylene and polypropylene. This confirms that microplastic debris could be swallowed by T.saltator in natural conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Saliu F.,University of Milan Bicocca | Degano I.,University of Pisa | Colombini M.P.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

A method based on the use of a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (3.0. mm. ×. 50. mm, 2.7. μm) with a high resolution electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight (ESI-Q-ToF) tandem mass spectrometer as detection system was optimized for the identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in complex archaeological residues.The best performances in chromatographic separation and Q-ToF detection sensitivity were reached by using a mixture of iPrOH/MeOH at a 0.6. mL/min flow rate. Triolein (OOO) was eluted in 12.30. min and the chromatographic resolution against tripalmitin (PPP) was 1.4. Very good limits of detection and quantification limits were also achieved (LOD. <. 0.03. μg/g LOQ. <. 0.10. μg/g).These achievements were compared with the results provided by traditional particle columns and with the results reported in the recent literature regarding TAGs analysis in archaeological residues. Thanks to the unprecedented chromatographic separation and detection sensitivity attained, it was possible for the first time to perform TAGs researches in archaeological residues and reference materials with a dataset containing more than 500 molecular formula. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Pinna D.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure | Salvadori B.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure | Salvadori B.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Porcinai S.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2011

Soluble salts contaminating limestones and marbles used as building and artistic materials play a relevant role in the deterioration processes of the substrates. Although desalination operations are carried out prior to protection and/or consolidation, a certain amount of salt remains inside the stones. When a surface treatment is chosen, the evaluation of its compatibility with the residual saline content is therefore needed. In the present work, specimens of three lithotypes characterized by a very different porosity - Lecce stone and Anã stone, both highly porous, and the less porous Gioia marble - were contaminated with salt and then treated with two protective products, the organic polydimethylsiloxane and the inorganic ammonium oxalate (NH 4)2(COO)2·H2O. Aim of the research was to select the best application conditions of the two products on salt-laden stone specimens, investigating as well the dependence of the protective action on the procedures adopted to apply the products. The performance of different concentrations and contact times of the products was tested in the laboratory, paying special attention to the possible drawbacks due to the salt. The study was carried out applying different methods: colorimetric measurements before and after the application of the products; water absorption by capillarity to investigate variations in water-interaction features; SEM-EDS analyses to evaluate the distribution of products and salt on the substrates. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pinna D.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure | Salvadori B.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure | Salvadori B.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Galeotti M.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

In this study, some mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products and biocides developed to prevent biological growth, were tested over time on three stone substrates with different bioreceptivity. The performance of both traditional (tetraethylorthosilicate, methylethoxy polysiloxane, Paraloid B72, tributyltin oxide, dibutyltin dilaurate) and innovative compounds (copper nanoparticles) was assessed using colour measurements, the water absorption by contact sponge method, and observation under stereo and optical microscopes. The application of the mixtures had also the purpose of controlling re-colonization on stone after a conservation treatment. The study site was the archaeological Area of Fiesole; the mixtures were applied in situ to sandstone, marble and plaster which had been cleaned beforehand. An innovative aspect of the study is that, by using non-invasive methods, it also permitted monitoring the mixtures' effectiveness in preventing biological growth. The monitoring results made it possible to assess the bioreceptivity of the treated stones (sandstone, marble, plaster) over a period of almost three years. The results showed that the mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products with biocides were effective in preventing biological growth on both a substrate with low bioreceptivity like plaster and a substrate with high bioreceptivity such as marble. The innovative mixture of nano-Cu particles with a water-repellent yielded good results in terms of preventing biological colonization. Moreover, they apparently did not affect the substrates' colour. Mixtures of nano-Cu particles with a consolidant and a water-repellent hold great promise for preventing re-colonization of stone after conservation treatment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Salvadori B.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Pinna D.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure | Porcinai S.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Salt crystallization is a major damage factor in stone weathering, and the application of inappropriate protective products may amplify its effects. This research focuses on the evaluation of two protective products' performance (organic polydimethylsiloxane and inorganic ammonium oxalate (NH4)2(COO)2·H2O) in the case of a salt load from behind. Experimental laboratory simulations based on salt crystallization cycles and natural weathering in an urban area were carried out. The effects were monitored over time, applying different methods: weight loss evaluation, colorimetric and water absorption by capillarity measurements, stereomicroscope observations, FTIR and SEM-EDS analyses. The results showed minor impact exerted on the short term on stones, particularly those treated with the water repellent, by atmospheric agents compared to salt crystallization. Lithotypes with low salt load (Gioia marble) underwent minor changes than the heavily salt-laden limestones (Lecce and Ançã stones), which were dramatically damaged when treated with polysiloxane. The results suggest that the ammonium oxalate treatment should be preferred to polysiloxane in the presence of soluble salts, even after desalination procedures which might not completely remove them. In addition, the neo-formed calcium oxalate seemed to effectively protect the stone, improving its resistance against salt crystallization without occluding the pores and limiting the superficial erosion caused by atmospheric agents. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sandu I.C.A.,New University of Lisbon | Bracci S.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Lobefaro M.,Cultural Association Icons Researches and Knowledge | Sandu I.,Al. I. Cuza University
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2010

This article covers a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of cleaning two Russian icons. The icons belong to a group of five from the same iconographic school, dating from the 16th to 17th centuries. An integrated and complementary approach to varnish and overpaint removal involved microscopic techniques (optical and scanning electron microscopy) and colorimetry (CIE L*a*b* system). The materials and techniques used in these icons have been characterized previously. Cleaning revealed extensive overpainting that had not only dramatically changed the original appearance, but also the meaning and attribution of one of the two icons. The analyses carried out were useful in determining the extent of the overpainting and led to a better assessment of the results and effectiveness of the restoration. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Conti C.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage
Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica C | Year: 2014

One of the most significant parameters used to evaluate the efficacy of a conservation treatment is the diffusion of the product on the surface and inside the monument porous materials. Though a lot of information has been obtained about the surface, there is a lack of data on the distribution of the organic-polymeric or inorganic-mineral conservation products inside a decayed porous substrate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of neutron radiography and spectroscopic techniques (Raman and FTIR) on the diffusion of ammonium oxalate, an inorganic-mineral conservation treatment, and of three organic-polymeric commercial products widely used in the conservation yards. The results highlighted that the coupling of these techniques turns out to be an effective integrated approach; advantages and drawbacks were evaluated and discussed. © Società Italiana di Fisica.

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