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Saliu F.,University of Milan Bicocca | Degano I.,University of Pisa | Colombini M.P.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

A method based on the use of a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (3.0. mm. ×. 50. mm, 2.7. μm) with a high resolution electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight (ESI-Q-ToF) tandem mass spectrometer as detection system was optimized for the identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in complex archaeological residues.The best performances in chromatographic separation and Q-ToF detection sensitivity were reached by using a mixture of iPrOH/MeOH at a 0.6. mL/min flow rate. Triolein (OOO) was eluted in 12.30. min and the chromatographic resolution against tripalmitin (PPP) was 1.4. Very good limits of detection and quantification limits were also achieved (LOD. <. 0.03. μg/g LOQ. <. 0.10. μg/g).These achievements were compared with the results provided by traditional particle columns and with the results reported in the recent literature regarding TAGs analysis in archaeological residues. Thanks to the unprecedented chromatographic separation and detection sensitivity attained, it was possible for the first time to perform TAGs researches in archaeological residues and reference materials with a dataset containing more than 500 molecular formula. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Fratini F.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Pecchioni E.,University of Florence | Rovero L.,University of Florence | Tonietti U.,University of Florence
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2011

In Calabria (Italy) original examples of earth buildings called "casedde" are present distinguished from the houses realized in stone or bricks that are indicated with the term "casini" or "turri". The historical centres of Sambiase and Nicastro, villages which belong to the municipality of Lamezia Terme, in the Tyrrhenian side of Catanzaro province, are an example of urban centres in which there are buildings of 4-5 floors completely or partially realized in earth bricks (adobe) connected with a mortar made of clay and lime.In the present study the mineralogical, physical and mechanical characterization of adobe samples coming from seven different buildings in a poor state of conservation has been carried out together with an analysis of the "Local Earth" for comparison.The analyses showed the absence of any mixing intervention in the earth except for the possible addition of straw. It was also possible to discover which optimum amount of clay is needed in order to have the best mechanical characteristics for that kind of earth. Moreover it was possible to emphasize that the new bricks, realized with the earth taken where the local masons indicated the presence of material suitable for the realisation of earth bricks, exhibit a mechanical behaviour similar to that of the old bricks with the best mechanical characteristics. Such earth can surely be utilised in consolidation interventions where substitutions and partial reconstructions of bricks are needed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ugolini A.,University of Florence | Ungherese G.,University of Florence | Ciofini M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Lapucci A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Camaiti M.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2013

Adults of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator were fed with dry fish food mixed with polyethylene microspheres (diameter 10-45μm). Observations of homogenized guts revealed the presence of microspheres independently of their dimensions. The gut resident time (GRT) was recorded and most of the microspheres are expelled in 24h. Microspheres are totally expelled in one week. Preliminary investigations did not show any consequence of microsphere ingestion on the survival capacity in the laboratory. FT-IR analyses carried out on faeces of freshly collected individuals revealed the presence of polyethylene and polypropylene. This confirms that microplastic debris could be swallowed by T.saltator in natural conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Conti C.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage
Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica C | Year: 2014

One of the most significant parameters used to evaluate the efficacy of a conservation treatment is the diffusion of the product on the surface and inside the monument porous materials. Though a lot of information has been obtained about the surface, there is a lack of data on the distribution of the organic-polymeric or inorganic-mineral conservation products inside a decayed porous substrate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of neutron radiography and spectroscopic techniques (Raman and FTIR) on the diffusion of ammonium oxalate, an inorganic-mineral conservation treatment, and of three organic-polymeric commercial products widely used in the conservation yards. The results highlighted that the coupling of these techniques turns out to be an effective integrated approach; advantages and drawbacks were evaluated and discussed. © Società Italiana di Fisica. Source

Rosi L.,University of Florence | Frediani M.,University of Florence | Frediani P.,University of Florence | Frediani P.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2010

The "one-pot" homogeneous hydrogenation of γ-butyrolactone and succinic or fumaric acid to 1,4-butandiol, have been successfully realized in the presence of the catalytic system [Ru(acac)3]/triphos] [triphos:MeC(CH2PPh2)3]. The influence of some reaction parameters on the regioselectivity and the rate of the reaction were investigated. The study was then extended to the "one-pot" synthesis of isotopomeric 1,4-butandiols by deuteration of the appropriate substrates in a deuterated solvent. 1,4-butandiol-d8, which was fully characterized, was obtained with 96% yield and 100% isotopomeric selectivity. A mechanism was proposed to rationalize the role of catalyst, solvent and deuterium distribution. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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