CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage

Italy

CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage

Italy
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Merola P.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Mei A.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research
Rendiconti Online Societa Geologica Italiana | Year: 2017

In geographical science, data derived from historical sources can be effective for urban studies and for planning strategies. The antique maps are a fundamental thematic layer for the understanding of the urban dynamic structure of a City. In this work the results obtained from the comparative analysis of historical maps (1575, 1772 and 1800), orthophotos of 2000 and the Regional Technical Map (CTR) of 2006 in the city of Naples are presented. To achieve this goal several stages have been carefully implemented: research and acquisition of historical and recent maps; organization of a Geographical Information System project to manage raster dataset; geo-referencing of maps and analysis of thematic layers. The results allow to evaluate the urban evolution of the city through its monuments and buildings. © Società Geologica Italiana, Roma 2017.


Dell'Unto N.,Lund University | Landeschi G.,Lund University | Leander Touati A.-M.,Lund University | Dellepiane M.,CNR Institute of Information Science and Technologies Alessandro Faedo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory | Year: 2016

In recent times, archaeological documentation strategies have been considerably improved by the use of advanced 3D acquisition systems. Laser scanning, photogrammetry and computer vision techniques provide archaeologists with new opportunities to investigate and document the archaeological record. In spite of this, the amount of data collected and the geometrical complexity of the models resulting from such acquisition processes have always prevented their systematic integration into a geographic information systems (GIS) environment. Recent technological advances occurred in the visualization of 3D contents, led us to overcome the aforementioned limitations and set up a work pipeline in which was possible to put the 3D models not only in the context of data visualization but also in the frame of spatial analysis. The case study described is a part of the Swedish Pompeii Project, a research and fieldwork activity started in 2000 with the purpose of recording and investigating an entire Pompeian city block, Insula V 1. As an additional part of the research, a laser scanning acquisition campaign was conducted in the last few years. The resulting models were thus meant to be used to develop further research lines: Among these, a 3D GIS system was expected to be set up with the purpose to (i) collect in the same geo-referenced environment, different typologies of documentation gathered in the context of the Swedish Pompeii Project; (ii) inter-connect 3D models with the project website; (iii) use the third dimension as a further analytical field of investigation, in the form of spatial analysis and cognitive simulation. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Landeschi G.,Lund University | Dell'Unto N.,Lund University | Lundqvist K.,Lund University | Ferdani D.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2016

The aim of the present work is to introduce an innovative framework for employing 3D-GIS as an exploratory platform to perform visual analysis. Such a methodology is aimed at detecting patterns of visibility to simulate the past human perception of specific categories of artifacts placed inside a virtually reconstructed three-dimensional space. As a case study, the house of Caecilius Iucundus in Pompeii (regio V, insula 1, entrances 23 and 26) was chosen and two media of visual communication, a painting and a graffito were tested to make an assessment of their visual impact on hypothetical observers. The approach consists of a vector-based line-of-sight (LOS) analysis, now available as an integral component of the 3D-analyst toolkit of the ESRI ArcGIS 10.x software package. This toolkit allowed us to perform the entire process inside a GIS environment, without splitting the tasks among different software platforms.It was thus possible to detect a significant difference in terms of visibility among the observed objects. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Demetrescu E.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2015

In recent years there has been a growing interest in 3D acquisition techniques in the field of cultural heritage, yet, at the same time, only a small percentage of case studies have been conducted on the virtual reconstruction of archaeological sites that are no longer in existence. Such reconstructions are, at times, considered "artistic" or "aesthetic" endeavors, as the complete list of sources used is not necessarily provided as a reference along with the 3D representation. One of the reasons for this is likely the lack of a shared language in which to store and communicate the steps in the reconstruction process. This paper proposes the use of a formal language with which to keep track of the entire virtual reconstruction process. The proposal is based on the stratigraphic reading approach and aims to create a common framework connecting archaeological documentation and virtual reconstruction in the earliest stages of the survey. To this end, some of the tools and standards used in archaeological research have been "extended" to taxonomically annotate both the validation of the hypothesis and the sources involved. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Ferretti M.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Polese C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Roldan Garcia C.,University of Valencia
Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

The presence of multilayered structures is common in such cultural artefacts as paintings, corroded metals, objects that underwent a whatever form of surface qualification. One of the most usual and complete ways to investigate such structures is observing a cross section, which requires sampling. There are however situations where at least part of the stratigraphic information can be derived non-destructively: the literature shows that X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has frequently been used, in recent years, for this purpose, with special regard to paintings and gilded metals. Aim of this paper is to further explore the suitability of XRF-based techniques to characterise multilayered structures. This is achieved by introducing improvements, with respect to previous works, in both equipment and data processing. The method, that has been developed for gilded and enamelled silver artefacts, relies on optimum excitation conditions provided for silver and on the relationship existing between the ratio AgKα/AgKβ of its fluorescence lines and the gilding thickness itself. The coating (gilding or enamel) thickness is derived by verifying the condition CKα,Ag = CKβ,Ag, where CKα,Ag and CKβ,Ag are the mass fractions of silver calculated on the lines AgKα and AgKβ, respectively. The calculations are carried out by PyMCA, a Fundamental Parameters code that implements the analysis of multilayered samples. As a case study we investigated in situ the four processional crosses of Borbona, Sant'Elpidio, Rosciolo and Forcella, made of a wood core with attached gilt and embossed silver sheets and enamelled silver plates. The analyses allowed to distinguish ancient restorations from original parts, to characterise the enamels and find their composition consistent with the dates of manufacturing and, as regards the cross of Rosciolo, to hypothesize the contribution of different "hands" in its manufacturing. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Piro S.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Campana S.,University of Siena
Near Surface Geophysics | Year: 2012

A Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) survey can enhance the quantity and quality of information when applied to archaeological prospection. The potential of the GPR method lies both in its relevance to a wide range of site conditions and the complementary nature of the data in comparison with other geophysical methods. The areas described in this paper were 'detected' by the Laboratory for Landscape Archaeology and Remote Sensing of University of Siena, during aerial prospection between 2001-2005. Analysis of the aerial photographs allowed interpretation of the Aiali, Castellina and Pava sites, province of Grosseto and Siena (Tuscany, Central Italy). These sites are related to quite a limited chronological range between late Roman and the early mediaeval period. All sites were studied through a multimethodological project based on the integration of fieldwalking and digital global position system (DGPS) surveys combined with different geophysical investigations such as: differential magnetics, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and automatic resistivity profiler (ARP). This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of GPR over the indicated sites characterized by differences in the soil condition and hypothesized archaeological features. With this method a highresolution data acquisition was adopted with the aim of reconstructing the location, depth and shape of the archaeological structures in the selected areas. Signal processing and the time-slice representation technique were used for the analysis of the collected data. Archaeological excavations and interpretations were then conducted systematically after completing the geophysical surveys (from 2006-2009), which confirmed the location and shape of most of the individualized structures. The obtained results demonstrate the accuracy with which GPR data can be matched to excavation data and the improvement in target definition. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.


Pietroni E.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage
Proceedings of the 2012 18th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2012: Virtual Systems in the Information Society | Year: 2012

The aim of "Matera Citt̀ Narrata" (Matera: Tales of a City) project is the creation of a digital platform able to support the public before and during the visit of Matera (Unesco World Heritage since 1993), through the access to cultural contents while attending places, sites, itineraries. It does not consist in a descriptive traditional guide inspecting monuments and mentioning who made them and when. On the contrary it tells the stories that took place in those ancient sites, real fragments of life, myths, events, characters, memories. The main components of the project are: 1) the web site, accessible in remote desktop systems and from smartphone, where it is possible to enjoy narratives, to make specific researches or to download different kinds of materials useful during the successive visit of the city; 2) cultural contents and applications for mobile devices (smartphone, tablet,.mp3 player) with different operative systems (iOS, Android, Symbian, Java). In this way every user can reach cultural contents in a simple way, choosing the communicative format he prefers and supported by the technology he owns. The access is totally free for public. The project has been realized by CNR ITABC and supported by the Regional Promotion Agency (APT) and the Basilicata Regional Government's Department of Manufacturing/Production Activities. Several contents have been developed: 3D reconstructions, videos, multimedia, virtual reality environments, audio guides. The paper will describe the contents and the technological infrastructure. © 2012 IEEE.


Ferretti M.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2014

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis by portable spectrometers has long been applied to the study of ancient metal artefacts. On one hand, its effectiveness depends on its ability to provide answers to archaeological, historical and technological questions. On the other hand, the artistic and monetary value of artefacts requires mandatorily respecting the physical integrity of the objects in most cases. These two conditions-i.e. being non-destructive and, at the same time, capable of significant results-affect the designing of spectrometer, with special attention given to the balance between portability and analytical performance, as well as measurement strategy. This paper presents a critical discussion concerning the use of portable XRF devices in the investigation of ancient metal artefacts, including the advantages and limitations of different technical solutions and measurement strategies. Measuring the absolute composition of the objects often requires the removal of the patina, which is seldom permitted for ancient artefacts. Hence, emphasis is given to alternative methods that are more respectful of artefact integrity and are able to make the most of the non-destructivity and measurement speed, which are the real mainstays of portable XRF. Other uses of this technique such as the analysis of multilayered materials and the study of surface compositional changes are also discussed. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.


Calcerano F.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Martinelli L.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2016

Numerical optimisation through dynamic simulation should consider the influence of urban microclimate on the energy balance of buildings, to reduce the energy consumption of the residential sector, even if a full interaction of the two different simulative resolutions is still under development. The current study employs free software readily available and widespread in professional practice to explore the currently available possibilities to analyse the dynamic interaction between microclimate and building. It combines dynamic simulation, parametric design and genetic algorithms to identify the optimal position of trees around a 1-floor and a 2-floors building, located in Rome, as a function of the maximum reduction in energy consumption for cooling during summer season (from 21st June to 22nd September), taking into account only the shading effect of trees. The results confirm the significant influence of vegetation's shading effect for energy savings: energy consumption in the 1-floor building decreases from 11.1% for the 1-tree configuration up to 44.4% for the 5-trees configuration; in the 2-floors building, the reduction goes from 12.8% up to 48.5%. For each configuration, the optimised positions generally favour the east and west sides. The optimised positions of the first two trees have a paramount effect on energy consumption reduction, above 20% in both models, while there is a sharp decrease in energy consumption reduction between 2-trees configurations and 3-trees configurations. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Fanini B.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage
ACHI 2014 - 7th International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions | Year: 2014

Gesture-based interaction models can be efficient and simpler to understand if designed to correspond to common user interactions with the physical world. This paper presents a 3D interface and its implementation to quickly perform navigation and manipulation tasks in multi-scale and multi-resolution 3D scenes using a low-cost consumer sensor: the Leap Motion controller. The developed system has the goal of exploring the potential of accurate hands and fingers tracking alongside mid-air 3D gestures, to investigate specific design advantages and issues they present in such complex environments. Copyright © IARIA, 2014.

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