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Moscatelli M.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | Piscitelli S.,CNR Institute of Methodologies for Environmental analysis | Piro S.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Stigliano F.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014

The anthropic layer of Palatine hill (Rome, Italy) and surrounding areas was modeled with the aim of providing a valuable input for assessing local seismic hazard; results are presented in this paper. More than 200 boreholes, twenty-four Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), and several Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys were integrated in order to (i) characterize the archaeological layer susceptible to seismic amplification, and (ii) map the basal surface of the anthropic cover. In terms of composition, the anthropic layer was distinguished in zones with dominant masonry remains, and zones with dominant infill. Zones with dominant masonry consist predominantly of building remains, typically alternate with sandy-pebbly fill materials with a silty-clay or pozzolan matrix. Zones with dominant infill are generally subordinate and consist of sandy-pebbles with a silty-clay or pozzolan matrix. The morphology buried below the anthropic layer was reconstructed through the integration of ERT and GPR surveys, that were calibrated and constrained using geological cross-sections, borehole and archaeological stratigraphies. The basal surface of the anthropic layer was interpolated by means of multicollocated cokriging, using buried escarpments as break lines. Thickness of the anthropic layer was than calculated starting from DTM and basal surface of the anthropic layer. Finally, the possible conditioning of the anthropic layer on local seismic amplification was discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Mele G.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Di Luzio E.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Di Luzio E.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | Di Salvo C.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2013

Along the Italian peninsula adjoin two crustal domains, peri-Tyrrhenian and Adriatic, whose boundary is not univocal in central Italy. In this area, we attempt to map the extent of the Moho in the two terrains from variations of the travel time difference between the direct P wave and the P-to-S wave converted at the crust-mantle boundary, called PsMoho. We use teleseismic receiver functions computed at 38 broad-band stations in this and previous studies, and assigned each of the recording sites to the Adriatic or peri-Tyrrhenian terrains based on station location, geologic and geophysical data and interpretation, and consistency of delays with the regional Moho trend. The results of the present study show that the PsMoho arrival time varies from 2.3 to 4.1 s in the peri-Tyrrhenian domain and from 3.7 to 5.5 s in the Adriatic domain. As expected, the lowest time difference is observed along the Tyrrhenian coastline and the largest values are observed in the axial zone of the Apennine chain. A key new result of this study is a sharp E-W boundary in the Adriatic domain that separates a deeper Moho north of about 42°N latitude from a shallower Moho to the south. This feature is constrained for a length of about 40 km by the observations available in this study. The E-W boundary requires a revision of prior mapping of the Moho in central Italy and supports previous hypotheses of lithosphere segmentation. Key Points Delay of Moho conversions in central Italy are computed at 24 stations Seismic stations are assigned to the Adriatic and peri-Tyrrhenian crust An E-W oriented transition in the Adriatic Moho is inferred ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Pietroni E.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Ray C.,University of Amsterdam | Rufa C.,R.Ø.S.A. | Pletinckx D.,Visual Dimension | Van Kampen I.,Soprintendenza Etruria Meridionale
Proceedings of the 2012 18th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2012: Virtual Systems in the Information Society | Year: 2012

A basic limit of most Virtual Reality (VR) applications reproducing cultural sites developed by the scientific community is that they often fail to fire up the attention and the involvement of the public. Starting from our experience in this domain, we would like to discuss some of the fundamental concepts about the potentiality of virtual ecosystems and to propose new natural interaction interfaces in VR environments based on body movements. The system we will describe has been derived from the new generation of games, but for the first time, it has been applied to VR environments dedicated to Cultural Heritage (CH) and experimented with inside museums. Interesting research focused on the definition of a new grammar of gestures is in progress, allowing more and more complexity, but with natural interchanges and connections between real and virtual worlds. An important development in this field has been realized in the framework of the Etruscanning project, a European project (Culture 2007) whose aim is to explore the possibilities of new visualization techniques, in order to re-create and restore the original context of the Etruscan graves. In this paper, we will discuss the methodological approach and the VR application dedicated to Regolini Galassi tomb, in the Sorbo necropolis in Cerveteri. Finally, we will present the results of the evaluation of the VR installation presented inside the museums, derived from public feedback. This observation lasted several months and gave us the opportunity to adjust the grammar of gestures and the general infrastructure of the application in order to define and implement the most efficient solution for people. © 2012 IEEE.

Ferretti M.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Polese C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Roldan Garcia C.,University of Valencia
Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

The presence of multilayered structures is common in such cultural artefacts as paintings, corroded metals, objects that underwent a whatever form of surface qualification. One of the most usual and complete ways to investigate such structures is observing a cross section, which requires sampling. There are however situations where at least part of the stratigraphic information can be derived non-destructively: the literature shows that X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has frequently been used, in recent years, for this purpose, with special regard to paintings and gilded metals. Aim of this paper is to further explore the suitability of XRF-based techniques to characterise multilayered structures. This is achieved by introducing improvements, with respect to previous works, in both equipment and data processing. The method, that has been developed for gilded and enamelled silver artefacts, relies on optimum excitation conditions provided for silver and on the relationship existing between the ratio AgKα/AgKβ of its fluorescence lines and the gilding thickness itself. The coating (gilding or enamel) thickness is derived by verifying the condition CKα,Ag = CKβ,Ag, where CKα,Ag and CKβ,Ag are the mass fractions of silver calculated on the lines AgKα and AgKβ, respectively. The calculations are carried out by PyMCA, a Fundamental Parameters code that implements the analysis of multilayered samples. As a case study we investigated in situ the four processional crosses of Borbona, Sant'Elpidio, Rosciolo and Forcella, made of a wood core with attached gilt and embossed silver sheets and enamelled silver plates. The analyses allowed to distinguish ancient restorations from original parts, to characterise the enamels and find their composition consistent with the dates of manufacturing and, as regards the cross of Rosciolo, to hypothesize the contribution of different "hands" in its manufacturing. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Piro S.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Campana S.,University of Siena
Near Surface Geophysics | Year: 2012

A Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) survey can enhance the quantity and quality of information when applied to archaeological prospection. The potential of the GPR method lies both in its relevance to a wide range of site conditions and the complementary nature of the data in comparison with other geophysical methods. The areas described in this paper were 'detected' by the Laboratory for Landscape Archaeology and Remote Sensing of University of Siena, during aerial prospection between 2001-2005. Analysis of the aerial photographs allowed interpretation of the Aiali, Castellina and Pava sites, province of Grosseto and Siena (Tuscany, Central Italy). These sites are related to quite a limited chronological range between late Roman and the early mediaeval period. All sites were studied through a multimethodological project based on the integration of fieldwalking and digital global position system (DGPS) surveys combined with different geophysical investigations such as: differential magnetics, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and automatic resistivity profiler (ARP). This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of GPR over the indicated sites characterized by differences in the soil condition and hypothesized archaeological features. With this method a highresolution data acquisition was adopted with the aim of reconstructing the location, depth and shape of the archaeological structures in the selected areas. Signal processing and the time-slice representation technique were used for the analysis of the collected data. Archaeological excavations and interpretations were then conducted systematically after completing the geophysical surveys (from 2006-2009), which confirmed the location and shape of most of the individualized structures. The obtained results demonstrate the accuracy with which GPR data can be matched to excavation data and the improvement in target definition. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Pescarin S.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Pagano A.,University of Lugano | Wallergard M.,Lund University | Hupperetz W.,University of Amsterdam | Ray C.,University of Amsterdam
Proceedings of the 2012 18th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2012: Virtual Systems in the Information Society | Year: 2012

November 2011 saw the opening of the exhibition "Archeovirtual" organized by CNR ITABC - Virtual Heritage Lab - and V-MusT Network of Excellence, in Paestum, Italy, under the general direction of BMTA1. The event, that was part of a wider European project focus on virtual museums, turned to be a great opportunity to show many different projects, applications and installations about Virtual Reality and Cultural Heritage. The four-days exhibition was an occasion to get in touch with the newest experiences with virtual reconstructions, 3D models, interactive environments, augmented reality and mobile solutions for cultural contents; at the same time, it was an opportunity for organizers to directly face the audience's impact towards projects. That because of the necessity to investigate more on social and behavioral aspects in order to positively affect the learning benefits of public. So doing, we could build in the future applications much more tailored on the final costumers, closer to their abilities and necessities. During the show four types of investigative tools were employed to evaluate the general visitor's behavior and the effectiveness of interfaces, to understand their expectations and experiences, and to obtain a reference grid of values to test if users' experience fit with organizers' ones. The first outcomes revealed that audience's impact toward interactive applications seems depending on the capability of technology to be "invisible" otherwise technology has to assure a wide range of possibilities in content accesses. In definitive, virtual museums need to have an always more integrated approach between cultural contents, interfaces and social and behavioral studies. © 2012 IEEE.

Pietroni E.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage
Proceedings of the 2012 18th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2012: Virtual Systems in the Information Society | Year: 2012

The aim of "Matera Citt̀ Narrata" (Matera: Tales of a City) project is the creation of a digital platform able to support the public before and during the visit of Matera (Unesco World Heritage since 1993), through the access to cultural contents while attending places, sites, itineraries. It does not consist in a descriptive traditional guide inspecting monuments and mentioning who made them and when. On the contrary it tells the stories that took place in those ancient sites, real fragments of life, myths, events, characters, memories. The main components of the project are: 1) the web site, accessible in remote desktop systems and from smartphone, where it is possible to enjoy narratives, to make specific researches or to download different kinds of materials useful during the successive visit of the city; 2) cultural contents and applications for mobile devices (smartphone, tablet,.mp3 player) with different operative systems (iOS, Android, Symbian, Java). In this way every user can reach cultural contents in a simple way, choosing the communicative format he prefers and supported by the technology he owns. The access is totally free for public. The project has been realized by CNR ITABC and supported by the Regional Promotion Agency (APT) and the Basilicata Regional Government's Department of Manufacturing/Production Activities. Several contents have been developed: 3D reconstructions, videos, multimedia, virtual reality environments, audio guides. The paper will describe the contents and the technological infrastructure. © 2012 IEEE.

Ferretti M.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2014

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis by portable spectrometers has long been applied to the study of ancient metal artefacts. On one hand, its effectiveness depends on its ability to provide answers to archaeological, historical and technological questions. On the other hand, the artistic and monetary value of artefacts requires mandatorily respecting the physical integrity of the objects in most cases. These two conditions-i.e. being non-destructive and, at the same time, capable of significant results-affect the designing of spectrometer, with special attention given to the balance between portability and analytical performance, as well as measurement strategy. This paper presents a critical discussion concerning the use of portable XRF devices in the investigation of ancient metal artefacts, including the advantages and limitations of different technical solutions and measurement strategies. Measuring the absolute composition of the objects often requires the removal of the patina, which is seldom permitted for ancient artefacts. Hence, emphasis is given to alternative methods that are more respectful of artefact integrity and are able to make the most of the non-destructivity and measurement speed, which are the real mainstays of portable XRF. Other uses of this technique such as the analysis of multilayered materials and the study of surface compositional changes are also discussed. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Calcerano F.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage | Martinelli L.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2016

Numerical optimisation through dynamic simulation should consider the influence of urban microclimate on the energy balance of buildings, to reduce the energy consumption of the residential sector, even if a full interaction of the two different simulative resolutions is still under development. The current study employs free software readily available and widespread in professional practice to explore the currently available possibilities to analyse the dynamic interaction between microclimate and building. It combines dynamic simulation, parametric design and genetic algorithms to identify the optimal position of trees around a 1-floor and a 2-floors building, located in Rome, as a function of the maximum reduction in energy consumption for cooling during summer season (from 21st June to 22nd September), taking into account only the shading effect of trees. The results confirm the significant influence of vegetation's shading effect for energy savings: energy consumption in the 1-floor building decreases from 11.1% for the 1-tree configuration up to 44.4% for the 5-trees configuration; in the 2-floors building, the reduction goes from 12.8% up to 48.5%. For each configuration, the optimised positions generally favour the east and west sides. The optimised positions of the first two trees have a paramount effect on energy consumption reduction, above 20% in both models, while there is a sharp decrease in energy consumption reduction between 2-trees configurations and 3-trees configurations. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fanini B.,CNR Institute for Technologies applied to Cultural Heritage
ACHI 2014 - 7th International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions | Year: 2014

Gesture-based interaction models can be efficient and simpler to understand if designed to correspond to common user interactions with the physical world. This paper presents a 3D interface and its implementation to quickly perform navigation and manipulation tasks in multi-scale and multi-resolution 3D scenes using a low-cost consumer sensor: the Leap Motion controller. The developed system has the goal of exploring the potential of accurate hands and fingers tracking alongside mid-air 3D gestures, to investigate specific design advantages and issues they present in such complex environments. Copyright © IARIA, 2014.

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