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Anastasi G.,University of Pisa | Conti M.,CNR Institute for Informatics and Telematics | Di Francesco M.,University of Texas at Arlington
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2011

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) represent a very promising solution in the field of wireless technologies for industrial applications. However, for a credible deployment of WSNs in an industrial environment, four main properties need to be fulfilled, i.e., energy efficiency, scalability, reliability, and timeliness. In this paper, we focus on IEEE 802.15.4 WSNs and show that they can suffer from a serious unreliability problem. This problem arises whenever the power management mechanism is enabled for energy efficiency, and results in a very low packet delivery ratio, also when the number of sensor nodes in the network is very low (e.g., 5). We carried out an extensive analysis - based on both simulation and experiments on a real WSN - to investigate the fundamental reasons of this problem, and we found that it is caused by the contention-based Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol used for channel access and its default parameter values. We also found that, with a more appropriate MAC parameters setting, it is possible to mitigate the problem and achieve a delivery ratio up to 100%, at least in the scenarios considered in this paper. However, this improvement in communication reliability is achieved at the cost of an increased latency, which may not be acceptable for industrial applications with stringent timing requirements. In addition, in some cases this is possible only by choosing MAC parameter values formally not allowed by the standard. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Passarella A.,CNR Institute for Informatics and Telematics
Computer Communications | Year: 2012

One of the most striking properties of the Internet is its flexibility to accommodate features it was not conceived for. Among the most significant examples, in this survey we consider the transition of the Internet from a reliable fault-tolerant network for host-to-host communication to a content-centric network, i.e. a network mostly devoted to support efficient generation, sharing and access to content. We survey this research area according to a top-down approach. We present a conceptual framework that encompasses the key building blocks required to support content-centric networking in the Internet. Then we describe in detail the two most important types of content-centric Internet technologies, i.e., Content-Delivery Networks (CDNs) and P2P systems. For each of them, we show how they cover the key building blocks. We then identify the functional components of CDN and P2P content management solutions, and discuss the main solutions proposed in the literature for each of them. We consider different types of content (both real time and non real time), and different networking environments (fixed, mobile, ⋯). Finally, we also discuss the main recent research trends focused on how to design the Future Internet as a native content-centric network. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Borgia E.,CNR Institute for Informatics and Telematics
Computer Communications | Year: 2014

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a new paradigm that combines aspects and technologies coming from different approaches. Ubiquitous computing, pervasive computing, Internet Protocol, sensing technologies, communication technologies, and embedded devices are merged together in order to form a system where the real and digital worlds meet and are continuously in symbiotic interaction. The smart object is the building block of the IoT vision. By putting intelligence into everyday objects, they are turned into smart objects able not only to collect information from the environment and interact/control the physical world, but also to be interconnected, to each other, through Internet to exchange data and information. The expected huge number of interconnected devices and the significant amount of available data open new opportunities to create services that will bring tangible benefits to the society, environment, economy and individual citizens. In this paper we present the key features and the driver technologies of IoT. In addition to identifying the application scenarios and the correspondent potential applications, we focus on research challenges and open issues to be faced for the IoT realization in the real world. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Santi P.,CNR Institute for Informatics and Telematics
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2010

In this paper, we investigate the fundamental properties of data gathering in wireless sensor networks, in terms of both capacity and latency. We consider a scenario in which s(n) out of n total network nodes have to deliver data to a set of d(n) sink nodes at a constant rate λ (n, s(n), d(n)). The goal is to characterize the maximum achievable rate, and the latency in data delivery. We present a simple data gathering scheme that achieves asymptotically optimal data gathering capacity and latency with arbitrary network deployments when d(n) = 1, and for most scaling regimes of s(n) and d(n) when d(n) > 1 in case of square grid and random node deployments. Differently from most previous work, our results and the presented data gathering scheme do not sacrifice energy efficiency to the need of maximizing capacity and minimizing latency. Finally, we consider the effects of a simple form of data aggregation on data gathering performance, and show that capacity can be increased by a factor f(n) with respect to the case of no data aggregation, where f(n) is the node density. To the best of our knowledge, the ones presented in this paper are the first results showing that asymptotically optimal data gathering capacity and latency can be achieved in arbitrary networks in an energy efficient way. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Delmastro F.,CNR Institute for Informatics and Telematics
Computer Communications | Year: 2012

The evolution of wireless communication technologies opened the way to the definition of innovative eHealth systems aimed at providing a continuous and remote support to patients and new instruments to improve the workflow of the medical personnel. This paper presents a survey of wireless communication technologies currently applied in eHealth systems, deeply analysing communication standards, protocols and performance results achieved in this field. The analysis of advantages and drawbacks of current technologies introduces also the definition of new research issues and possible solutions for future eHealth systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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