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Maestro A.,University of Cambridge | Guzman E.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases | Ortega F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rubio R.G.,Complutense University of Madrid
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2014

The contact angle of particles attached to fluid interfaces plays a key role in many scientific and technological aspects of particle-laden layers. In spite of the recognized importance, the laws that govern this property are still poorly understood. The main problem associated with the study of this property is that multiple variables are involved in the wetting process of particles by fluid interfaces. Such variables are associated with the chemical nature of both the particles and the fluid phases, and with the particle's size. Understanding of the different aspects controlling the contact angle of particles is a physico-chemical challenge, and is very important because of the many technological aspects in which particle laden interfaces are involved. This review discusses the current status and the aspects to be dealt with in the near future in the study of the contact angle of particles attached to fluid interfaces. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Vanossi A.,CNR Institute of Materials | Vanossi A.,International School for Advanced Studies | Manini N.,International School for Advanced Studies | Manini N.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

The physics of sliding friction is gaining impulse from nanoscale and mesoscale experiments, simulations, and theoretical modeling. This Colloquium reviews some recent developments in modeling and in atomistic simulation of friction, covering open-ended directions, unconventional nanofrictional systems, and unsolved problems. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Malavasi L.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases | Fisher C.A.J.,Japan Fine Ceramics Center | Islam M.S.,University of Bath
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

This critical review presents an overview of the various classes of oxide materials exhibiting fast oxide-ion or proton conductivity for use as solid electrolytes in clean energy applications such as solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between structural and mechanistic features of the crystalline materials and their ion conduction properties. After describing well-established classes such as fluorite- and perovskite-based oxides, new materials and structure-types are presented. These include a variety of molybdate, gallate, apatite silicate/germanate and niobate systems, many of which contain flexible structural networks, and exhibit different defect properties and transport mechanisms to the conventional materials. It is concluded that the rich chemistry of these important systems provides diverse possibilities for developing superior ionic conductors for use as solid electrolytes in fuel cells and related applications. In most cases, a greater atomic-level understanding of the structures, defects and conduction mechanisms is achieved through a combination of experimental and computational techniques (217 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Santini C.,University of Camerino | Pellei M.,University of Camerino | Gandin V.,University of Padua | Porchia M.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

The research on copper(I,II) coordination compounds as antiproliferative agents has increased as demonstrated by the high number of papers published in this field in the period 2008-2012. The first consideration which stems from the presented data concerns the large variety of ligands used to synthesize potentially active copper drugs. The reported copper complexes (mostly copper(II)) comprised ligands of different hapticity, from monodentate to hexadentate, and characterized by different donor atoms (O, N, S, P, and C) which gave rise to different geometrical arrangements and, in some cases, dimeric and polymeric species. Regarding the copper oxidation state, there is no direct correlation between the antiproliferative activity and reduced or oxidized forms of the metal. However, the few reported copper(I) complexes, featured by phosphine or heterocyclic carbene ligands generally showed a potent cytotoxic activity. Most of the studies with copper complexes continue to consider DNA as the main biological target.


Malavasi L.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2011

In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Novakovic R.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids | Year: 2010

The energetics of mixing in Al-Nb and Nb-Ti liquid alloys have been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the frame of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory (QLT). The phase diagram of the Al-Nb system exhibits three intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while a relatively simple phase diagram of the Nb-Ti system indicates nearly ideal mixing behaviour in the liquid phase and two stable solid phases. Since the structure of a liquid alloy is in some respects similar to that of a crystal, the complex formation phenomenon in Al-Nb melts has been analysed by a quasi-lattice structural model for chemical complexes. The energetics and structural arrangement in Nb-Ti melts have been studied by the quasi-chemical approximation (QCA) for the regular solution model. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Novakovic R.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2011

The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi2 composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al8Cr5 and CrNi2 chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Ferrari M.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases | Ravera F.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010

Wetting studies regarding amphiphilic molecules and adsorption properties on highly water repellent solid surfaces play key roles in research and technology, with increasing interest both in fundamental and application fields. Nevertheless the wetting properties of aqueous surfactant solutions, non aqueous liquids or immiscible phases on superhydrophobic (SH) solid surfaces have been so far rarely investigated. In this work the authors give an overview on this topic reviewing the literature available together with preliminary results concerning the influence of the distribution properties of surfactants between two immiscible phases. Transition between wetting states can be also considered a possible development of these studies based on switching mechanisms. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Quartarone E.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases | Mustarelli P.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

This critical review presents an overview of the various classes of Li + conductors for use as electrolytes in lithium polymer batteries and all-solid state microbatteries. Initially, we recall the main models for ion transport and the structure-transport relationships at the basis of the observed conductivity behaviours. Emphasis is then placed on the physico-chemical and functional parameters relevant for optimal electrolytes preparation, as well as on the techniques of choice for their evaluation. Finally, the state of the art of polymer and ceramic electrolytes is reported, and the most interesting strategies for the future developments are described (121 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Agresti F.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases
Thermochimica Acta | Year: 2013

In this paper a generalization of the Kissinger equation for solid-gas heterogeneous transformations in the presence of a non-zero partial pressure is proposed, taking into account both thermodynamics and kinetics. A mathematical derivation of the extended equation obtained by incorporating a thermodynamic driving force factor into the rate equation is reported. The proposed method is applicable to the non-isothermal (isochronous) determination of the decomposition apparent activation energy of solids leading to the reversible evolution of gas in near equilibrium conditions. The proposed equation could be particularly useful when the experimental conditions used for the kinetic investigations do not allow to keep the system far from equilibrium during the whole experiment, e.g. in the case a volumetric device is employed to track the extent of reaction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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