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De Luca G.,Messina University | De Luca G.,CNR Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials | Liscio A.,CNR Institute for Organic Syntheses and Photoreactivity | Battagliarin G.,Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Selective solvent vapour annealing is used on a photovoltaic blend to enhance the interaction between the electron acceptor and the electron donor, simplifying thin films post-processing for photovoltaic applications. A remarkable improvement in the interfacial charge transfer in the bulk hetero-junction is attained, as measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Petrone P.,University of Naples Federico II | Giordano M.,CNR Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials | Giustino S.,University of Naples Federico II | Guarino F.M.,University of Naples Federico II
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The study of ancient skeletal pathologies can be adopted as a key tool in assessing and tracing several diseases from past to present times. Skeletal fluorosis, a chronic metabolic bone and joint disease causing excessive ossification and joint ankylosis, has been only rarely considered in differential diagnoses of palaeopathological lesions. Even today its early stages are misdiagnosed in endemic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings: Endemic fluorosis induced by high concentrations of fluoride in water and soils is a major health problem in several countries, particularly in volcanic areas. Here we describe for the first time the features of endemic fluorosis in the Herculaneum victims of the 79 AD eruption, resulting from long-term exposure to high levels of environmental fluoride which still occur today. Conclusions/Significance: Our observations on morphological, radiological, histological and chemical skeletal and dental features of this ancient population now suggest that in this area fluorosis was already endemic in Roman times. This evidence merged with currently available epidemiologic data reveal for the Vesuvius area population a permanent fluoride health hazard, whose public health and socio-economic impact is currently underestimated. The present guidelines for fluoridated tap water might be reconsidered accordingly, particularly around Mt Vesuvius and in other fluoride hazard areas with high natural fluoride levels. © 2011 Petrone et al. Source

Larobina D.,CNR Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials | Greco F.,CNR Institute for Research on Combustion
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

Modeling of stressdiffusion coupling in gels, originally developed by Doi for the case where the solid component of the gel is a linear elastic network, is here extended to the case of a linear viscoelastic solid component, thereby allowing for a mechanism of intrinsic relaxation. The extended model is solved for a cylindrical gel subjected to unconfined uniaxial compression. Depending on the respective values of the two characteristic times, i.e., diffusive and viscoelastic, measurable quantities like axial force and external radius of the cylindrical gel are calculated to display different qualitative behaviors. Calculated results for the case of uniaxial traction are also reported, which compare favorably with some available experimental results. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source

Alongi J.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Carletto R.A.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Bosco F.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Carosio F.,Polytechnic University of Turin | And 5 more authors.
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2014

Despite the use of toxic and not environmentally-friendly chemicals, some proteins derived from animal or microbial sources have been investigated as novel green flame retardants for cotton fabrics. In particular, phosphorus- and sulphur-rich proteins (i.e. caseins and hydrophobins) have been homogeneously deposited on cotton fabrics starting from protein aqueous suspensions/solutions. These surface treatments, based on the use of species able to favour the dehydration of cellulose instead of its depolymerization, have strongly enhanced the production of a thermally stable carbonaceous structure (char), hence significantly enhancing the flame retardancy of the fabrics, as assessed by thermogravimetry and flammability tests. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

De Luca G.,CNR Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials | Pisula W.,Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research | Credgington D.,University College London | Treossi E.,CNR Institute for Organic Syntheses and Photoreactivity | And 9 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2011

In the search for new ways to combine the appealing simplicity of solution processing methods and the need for a high performance of the active layer of organic (opto)electronic devices, the possibilities given by the joint use of well-established casting techniques and post-treatment procedures are explored, as well as new and unconventional deposition protocols to tailor self-assembled architectures with a high degree of order at different length scales, from the subnanometer up to the macroscopic scale. In fact, even the same organic molecule can give rise to different molecular architectures which, in turn, may offer the possibility to exploit a large variety of new functionalities of the deposited materials, paving the way towards the fabrication multifunctional organic-based devices. You can tailor it from the bottom or from the top! The combination of well-established and non-conventional methods for processing and post processing of organic functional materials allows the development of highly ordered nanostructures for organic electronic applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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