CNR Institute for Complex Systems

www.isc.cnr.it/
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Castellano C.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Pastor-Satorras R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We study the threshold of epidemic models in quenched networks with degree distribution given by a power-law. For the susceptible-infected-susceptible model the activity threshold λc vanishes in the large size limit on any network whose maximum degree kmax∼ diverges with the system size, at odds with heterogeneous mean-field (HMF) theory. The vanishing of the threshold has nothing to do with the scale-free nature of the network but stems instead from the largest hub in the system being active for any spreading rate λ>1/√kmax∼ and playing the role of a self-sustained source that spreads the infection to the rest of the system. The susceptible-infected-removed model displays instead agreement with HMF theory and a finite threshold for scale-rich networks. We conjecture that on quenched scale-rich networks the threshold of generic epidemic models is vanishing or finite depending on the presence or absence of a steady state. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Pastor-Satorras R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Castellano C.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Castellano C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Van Mieghem P.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2015

In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and sociotechnical systems. The complex properties of real-world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. A coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes is presented, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, computer, and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and rely on similar models for the description of the diffusion of pathogens, knowledge, and innovation. For this reason, while focusing on the main results and the paradigmatic models in infectious disease modeling, the major results concerning generalized social contagion processes are also presented. Finally, the research activity at the forefront in the study of epidemic spreading in coevolving, coupled, and time-varying networks is reported. © 2015 American Physical Society. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Smallenburg F.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Sciortino F.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We propose a simple extension of the well known ST2 model for water [F. H. Stillinger and A. Rahman, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 1545 (1974)] that allows for a continuous modification of the hydrogen-bond angular flexibility. We show that the bond flexibility affects the relative thermodynamic stability of the liquid and of the hexagonal (or cubic) ice. On increasing the flexibility, the liquid-liquid critical point, which in the original ST2 model is located in the no-man's land (i.e., the region where ice is the thermodynamically stable phase) progressively moves to a temperature where the liquid is more stable than ice. Our study definitively proves that the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model is a genuine phenomenon, of high relevance in all tetrahedral network-forming liquids, including water. © 2015 American Physical Society. © 2015 American Physical Society.


The operation of electroacoustic devices based on surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagation along β-SiC/AlN and amorphous-SiC/AlN substrates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN film thickness, the SAW propagation direction, temperature and electric boundary conditions. GHz-range, enhanced electroacoustic coupling coefficient, temperature compensated around 20 C electroacoustic devices are the advantages of SiC/AlN composite structures. These structures are also suitable for the implementation of sensors with improved performances with respect to SAW devices based on bulk single crystal piezoelectric substrates. The structures feasibility was confirmed by structural investigation and quantitative analysis of sputtered amorphous-SiC and AlN films on Si substrates. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Leonetti M.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Conti C.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Lopez C.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
Nature Photonics | Year: 2011

The discovery of the spontaneous mode-locking of lasers, that is, the self-starting synchronous oscillation of electromagnetic modes in a cavity, has been a milestone of photonics allowing the realization of oscillators delivering ultrashort pulses. This process is so far known to occur only in standard ordered lasers and only in the presence of a specific device (the saturable absorber). We engineer a mode-selective pumping of a random laser formed by a self-assembled cluster of nanometric particles. We show that the random laser can be continuously driven from a configuration exhibiting weakly interacting electromagnetic resonances to a regime of collectively oscillating strongly interacting modes. This phenomenon, which opens the way to the development of a new generation of miniaturized and all-optically controlled light sources, may be explained as the first evidence of spontaneous mode-locking in disordered resonators. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Ciuchi S.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Fratini S.,CNRS Neel Institute
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The consequences of several microscopic interactions on the photoemission spectra of crystalline organic semiconductors are studied theoretically. It is argued that their relative roles can be disentangled by analyzing both their temperature and their momentum-energy dependence. Our analysis shows that the polaronic thermal band narrowing, which is the foundation of most theories of electrical transport in organic semiconductors, is inconsistent in the range of microscopic parameters appropriate for these materials. An alternative scenario is proposed to explain the experimental trends. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Craciun F.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

A sudden increase in the electrostrictive coefficient Q13 when temperature decreases is seen in three different types of ferroelectric relaxors (PLZT 9/65/35, PLZT 22/20/80, and PMN-PT) starting from ∼50 K above the dielectric permittivity maximum temperature, Tm. The temperature dependence is attributed to the softening of the quasilocal mode occurring near dopants or charge-transfer sites. The steep increase when the temperature decreases could be related to the transition of polar nanoregions from dynamic to quasistatic regime, which introduces an intermediate temperature scale T*, besides Burns temperature TB and freezing temperature Tf. Possible consequences for nonequilibrium phenomena, including high-temperature memory found in relaxors, are conjectured. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Lepri S.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We present a stochastic model for amplifying, diffusive media such as, for instance, random lasers. Starting from a simple random-walk model, we derive a stochastic partial differential equation for the energy field which contains a multiplicative random-advection term yielding intermittency and power-law distributions of the field itself. A dimensional analysis indicates that such features are more likely to be observed for small enough samples and in lower spatial dimensions. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Cavagna A.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Flocking is a paradigmatic example of collective animal behaviour, where global order emerges out of self-organization. Each individual has a tendency to align its flight direction with those of neighbours, and such a simple form of interaction produces a state of collective motion of the group. When compared with other cases of collective ordering, a crucial feature of animal groups is that the interaction network is not fixed in time, as each individual moves and continuously changes its neighbours. The possibility to exchange neighbours strongly enhances the stability of global ordering and the way information is propagated through the group. Here, we assess the relevance of this mechanism in large flocks of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We find that birds move faster than Brownian walkers both with respect to the centre of mass of the flock, and with respect to each other. Moreover, this behaviour is strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of motion of the flock. We also measure the amount of neighbours reshuffling and find that neighbours change in time exclusively as a consequence of the random fluctuations in the individual motion, so that no specific mechanism to keep one's neighbours seems to be enforced. On the contrary, our findings suggest that a more complex dynamical process occurs at the border of the flock.


Mazzocchi F.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

Reductionism has largely influenced the development of science, culminating in its application to molecular biology. An increasing number of novel research findings have, however, shattered this view, showing how the molecular-reductionist approach cannot entirely handle the complexity of biological systems. Within this framework, the advent of systems biology as a new and more integrative field of research is described, along with the form which has taken on the debate of reductionism versus holism. Such an issue occupies a central position in systems biology, and nonetheless it is not always clearly delineated. This partly occurs because different dimensions (ontological, epistemological, methodological) are involved, and yet the concerned ones often remain unspecified. Besides, within systems biology different streams can be distinguished depending on the degree of commitment to embrace genuine systemic principles. Some useful insights into the future development of this discipline might be gained from the tradition of complexity and self-organization. This is especially true with regards the idea of self-reference, which incorporated into the organizational scheme is able to generate autonomy as an emergent property of the biological whole. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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