CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines

Torino, Italy

CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines

Torino, Italy
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Caffaro F.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Cremasco M.M.,University of Turin | Preti C.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Cavallo E.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics | Year: 2016

Introduction: Exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) is one of the most important risks for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The objective of the study was to investigate whether an active cab suspension system fitted on a telehandler was effective in reducing WBV and in improving comfort. Method: Sixteen male healthy professional operators drove a telehandler on a 100 m ISO 5008 smooth track at two different speeds (5 and 12 kph) with activated and deactivated cab suspension system. Adopting an ergonomic approach, different aspects of the human-machine interaction were analyzed: 1) vibration transmissibility, 2) subjective ratings of general comfort and local body discomfort, and 3) anthropometric characteristics of the users. Results: A series of ANCOVAs showed that the suspension system was effective in reducing WBV at both speeds but did not affect the perception of comfort by the operators. Moreover, individuals with higher Body Mass Index (BMI) experienced more comfort. Some neck/shoulder and lumbar complaints and perceived hard jolts seemed to remain even when the system was activated. No correlations were found between objective and subjective measures. Practical applications: Results suggest that the operators, given their wide range of physical variability, may need more adjustable or customizable WBV reduction systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Spinelli R.,CNR Tree and Timber Institute | Magagnotti N.,CNR Tree and Timber Institute | Paletto G.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Preti C.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines
Silva Fennica | Year: 2011

A study was conducted to determine the effect of some wood characteristics such as species, moisture content and tree part on the performance and product quality offered by a mobile industrial chipper, of the type commonly used for roadside chipping. Two main species, two tree parts and two moisture content levels were combined in a factorial design yielding 8 treatments, each replicated 5 or 6 times. A flow meter was installed on the chipper engine, and all chips produced were weighed and sampled for moisture content and particle size distribution. The results indicated that some wood characteristics such as species and moisture content have a secondary effect on chipper productivity and fuel consumption, which are primarily controlled by piece size. In particular, fuel consumption per unit dry mass seem to be rather constant and in the range of 3.2 l per oven dry ton. Moisture content and tree part may have a significant effect on the particle size distribution of chips. Of course, these results were only verified for the species used in the test and for industrial chippers, and may change if substantially different species or machines are used.


Facello A.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Cavallo E.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Magagnotti N.,CNR Tree and Timber Institute | Paletto G.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Spinelli R.,CNR Tree and Timber Institute
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2013

The authors tested the same chipper under two alternative cut length settings (7 mm and 20 mm), with and without a piece breaker. The study included 10 repetitions per treatment, over 2 different feedstock types: chestnut logs and locust logs. The total number of repetitions was 80, each consisting of about 30 kg of logs. Cut length setting and piece breaker option are the main drivers of chip size, and they are manipulated with the main purpose of managing particle size distribution. Our study showed that the proportion of small chips increased dramatically with the shortest cut length setting (7 mm). Installing a piece breaker allowed maximizing the incidence of small chips, which reached 70% of the total mass when the piece breaker was used in combination with the shortest cut length setting. All else being equal, reducing cut length determined a substantial decrease of productivity (ca. 30%), and an even higher increase of specific fuel consumption (ca. 50%). All strategies to reduce chip size also resulted in increasing the incidence of fines. These results were obtained with new sharp blades. Blade wear may enhance or weaken the effect of cut length and piece breaker option. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Facello A.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Cavallo E.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Magagnotti N.,CNR Tree and Timber Institute | Paletto G.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Spinelli R.,CNR Tree and Timber Institute
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

The experimental design consisted of ten repetitions per each combination of two wood species (locust or chestnut), two knife conditions (new or worn out) and two piece breaker options (with or a without). Each repetitionconsisted of a manually-fed log bunch, weighing about 30kg. Average productivity with fresh material, wH2O=36-42%, varied between 4 and 14th-1, or between 3 and 9 oven-dry th-1. Productivity was 15-30% higher for locust than for chestnut, when working with new knives; it was 30-40% higher for chestnut than for locust, when working with worn knives. All else being equal, blade wear determined a 50% reduction of productivity. Installing a piece breaker resulted in a 30% decrease of productivity, but only when knives where new. Specific fuel consumption per unit of chipped biomass varied between 1.5 and 4.2Lt-1, of fresh matter, or 2.3 and 6.4Lt-1 of dry matter. Blade wear had a dominant effect, explaining between 70 and 75% of the total variability. Specific fuel consumption increased 1.4-2.8 times with blade wear, depending on species and piece breaker option. Knife wear and the use of a piece breaker determined a marked increase in the incidence of small chips (8-3mm) and fine particles (<3mm), and a parallel reduction in the incidence of large chips (45-9mm). If the main goal of a chipper operator is increasing productivity and decreasing fuel consumption, managing knife wear should be a primary target. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Dariz L.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Malaguti G.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Ruggeri M.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines
IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

The IEEE 802.15.4e amendment provides different modalities over which Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can be deployed, even with strict requirements in terms of latency and determinism; still, there seems to be room for improvement. This paper proposes two enhancements for IEEE 802.15.4e LLDN mode: (1) allowing a reduced and more predictable configuration time and (2) focusing on the worst-case latency for high-priority traffic. A comparison with standard LLDN is then performed and evaluated, either through Monte Carlo simulations or analytically. © 2014 IEEE.


Ferrari E.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Cavallo E.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines
Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health | Year: 2013

Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator, and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2×2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors. ©2013 ASABE ISSN 1074-7583.


Carletti E.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Pedrielli F.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines
ICSV 2016 - 23rd International Congress on Sound and Vibration: From Ancient to Modern Acoustics | Year: 2016

The Directive 2000/14/EC is part of the European Union's strategy to reduce noise at source, in particular noise emissions from equipment for use outdoors, and provides relevant information to purchasers, users and citizens to encourage the choice of quieter equipment. For this latter purpose, a label indicating the guaranteed sound power level has to be affixed to each item of equipment in a visible, legible and indelible form. Unfortunately, it's widely recognized that the current noise marking is difficult to be interpreted and does not give enough information. Consequently, the design of a more understandable label is an important aspect that needs to be considered in the current directive revision process. This study aims at investigating if a noise labelling showing the absolute value of the guaranteed sound power level and giving also relative information on how much noisy a given product is compared to similar ones could be applied to the machines in the scope of the Directive 2000/14/EC. A procedure is proposed in order to establish noise "classes" for each equipment type and two case studies are also presented as implementation examples. Finally, a possible graphical format for the revised label is suggested which can provide understandable and straightforward information.


Pedrielli F.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Carletti E.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines
ICSV 2016 - 23rd International Congress on Sound and Vibration: From Ancient to Modern Acoustics | Year: 2016

The Directive 2000/14/EC (Outdoor Noise Directive - OND) relates to the noise emissions in the environment by equipment for use outdoors. As OND has remained unchanged till now, a revision process has now started which involves many different aspects such as the feasibility of noise limit reduction or new limit introduction, the update of the test codes, the revision of the conformity procedures, and many other features. A controversial issue concerns the collection of noise data as required in Art. 16. The idea behind this article is that the noise data collection is a necessary basis for the Member States' and the Commission's further assessment of future legislative actions (such as the current revision process). In this respect, Art. 16 gives provisions for manufacturers to submit their 'declarations of conformity' both to the Commission and to the relevant national authorities and for the Commission to collect the data and publish the relevant information periodically. Therefore, a central noise database is now available. However, it is popular opinion that this has imposed significant burdens on both manufacturers and authorities but the end results are of negligible value, due to the mistakes and shortcomings in the database itself. This paper wants to examine in depth this issue and to make considerations on the undisputed usefulness and effectiveness of noise data availability, despite the limitations and the critical issues of the current database. The replacement of the actual database with a more comprehensive system is recommended rather than the removal of Art. 16. Suggestions are also given on some new features to be implemented in the revised online registration system in order to improve the quality level of the collected noise data.


Caffaro F.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Cavallo E.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines
Journal of Safety Research | Year: 2015

Introduction: Pictograms affixed to agricultural machinery are important tools to reduce the occurrence of accidents and injuries when correctly noticed, comprehended, and followed. This study investigated the knowledge of safety pictograms used in agricultural machinery in a sample of farmers and farm workers and examined the factors influencing their comprehension. Method: A questionnaire with 12 safety pictograms used for agricultural machinery was administered to 281 owners or users of agricultural machinery. For each of the pictograms, the participants had to select the most appropriate verbal description from among four choices. Results: The pictograms examined yielded poor comprehension scores, including warnings related to the most frequent accidents involving agricultural machinery. Familiarity with the pictograms and years of experience with agricultural machinery significantly increased users' comprehension of the meaning of the pictograms. Conclusions: Specific training programs should be designed to draw attention to safety pictograms and to instill their meaning. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.


Spinelli R.,CNR Tree and Timber Institute | Cavallo E.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines | Facello A.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2012

The authors tested a chipper prototype adopting a new comminution device, designed to produce high quality chips when processing delimbed logs. The machine was fitted with innovative tubular blades, mounted on a flywheel. The prototype was powered by a 55 kW farm tractor through the standard power take-off. The machine appeared as efficient as most conventional disc or drum chippers in the same size class, but offered a much better chip quality. Chips were free from any particles longer than 45 mm, and with a very limited content of fine particles (max. 2.5%). Of course, this was achieved when using premium wood raw material, such as delimbed small logs. Performance varied with tree species: poplar was the softest and easiest to chip, whereas robinia was the hardest and required a much larger effort. Diesel fuel consumption varied between 3.4 and 4.3 dm 3 per oven-dry tonne. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Loading CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines collaborators
Loading CNR Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines collaborators