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Legout A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Richter C.,OFFICE NATIONAL DES FORETS | Pousse N.,OFFICE NATIONAL DES FORETS | Van Der Heijden G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Revue Forestiere Francaise | Year: 2014

French forests are currently under increasing pressure from nutritional, forest management and climatic factors that may affect the sustainability of forest ecosystems and degrade the chemical, physical and biological components of the soil. This workshop presented the current state of knowledge and discussed how soils may be degraded and how soil degradation may be remediated and restored. It also provided an opportunity for discussing various approaches to ensure sustainable forest production by using different types of input (liming/ash, sludge, etc.) or by producing biomass on industrial wastelands. © AgroParisTech, 2014.


Legout A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Richter C.,Office National des Forets | Pousse N.,Office National des Forets | Van Der Heijden G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Revue Forestiere Francaise | Year: 2014

French forests are currently under increasing pressure from nutritional, forest management and climatic factors that may affect the sustainability of forest ecosystems and degrade the chemical, physical and biological components of the soil. This workshop presented the current state of knowledge and discussed how soils may be degraded and how soil degredation may be remediated and restored. It also provided an opportunity for discussing various approaches to ensure sustainable forest production by using different types of input (liming/ash, sludge, etc) or by producing biomass on industrial wastelands. © 2014 AgroParisTech.


Larrieu L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cabanettes A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gonin P.,CNPF IDF | Lachat T.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | And 4 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2014

In forest ecosystems, conservation is often considered in the absence of any long-term dynamic perspective, yet dynamic processes extend over hundreds of years. Saproxylic taxa represent about 25% of the species diversity in temperate and boreal forests and they depend on both spatial and temporal continuity in the availability of deadwood and certain tree microhabitats. Our study focused on the dynamics of deadwood and tree microhabitats throughout the silvigenetic cycle in 32 unharvested European mountain mixed forests. Our dataset contained 178 plots classified into one of five forest development phases (regeneration, establishing, growing, culmination and disintegration). We analyzed how the amount and quality of deadwood and microhabitats varied according to the five phases. Contrary to expectations, deadwood and tree microhabitat availability remained more or less stable throughout the silvigenetic cycle, both in quantity and diversity. Furthermore, whether the forests were dominated by broadleaves or conifers, there were no significant differences in terms of deadwood or tree microhabitat dynamics. Pioneer (Betula spp., Salix spp.) and post-pioneer species (Fraxinus exelsior, Sorbus spp., Prunus avium) played an important role throughout the silvigenetic cycle by providing a diversity of deadwood when deadwood from the dominant species (i.e. Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies) was scarce. Understanding the dynamics of deadwood and tree microhabitats may help us provide a model for forest managers who intend to emulate natural forest dynamics and will also improve our understanding of the relationship between forest dynamics and biodiversity conservation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Fiquepron J.,CNPF IDF | Garcia S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Garcia S.,Agro ParisTech | Stenger A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Stenger A.,Agro ParisTech
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of the forest on raw water quality within the framework of other land uses. On the basis of measurements of quality parameters that were identified as being the most problematic (i.e., pesticides and nitrates), we modeled how water quality is influenced by land uses. In order to assess the benefits provided by the forest in terms of improved water quality, we used variations of drinking water prices that were determined by the operating costs of water supply services (WSS). Given the variability of links between forests and water quality, we chose to cover all of France using data observed in each administrative department (France is divided into 95 départements), including a description of WSS and information on land uses. We designed a model that describes the impact of land uses on water quality, as well as the operation of WSS and prices. This bioeconomic model was estimated by the generalized method of moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity and heteroscedasticity issues. We showed that the forest has a positive effect on raw water quality compared to other land uses, with an indirect impact on water prices, making them lower for consumers. •The value of the forest (and other land uses) is assessed in terms of the quality of water resources.•Our method is based on water supply service operating costs (including water treatment) variations.•We have designed a simultaneous equation model describing the impact of land uses on water quality.•We show that land uses have a significant direct impact on raw water quality, and an indirect effect on water price.•Our study reveals the positive effect of the forest on water quality with respect to other land uses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Sardin T.,Expert national sylvicultures Office National des Forets | Riou-Nivert P.,CNPF IDF
Revue Forestiere Francaise | Year: 2014

This article deals with changes in silvicultural practices, in particular for pine and spruce. Silvicultural practices for production are the main topic of the article but other functions are dealt with as the multi-functional approach is predominant in France. For instance, uneven-aged silvicultural systems have gained considerable ground, particularly using deciduous species, in response to a demand from society (stability, landscapes), but which in the case of softwoods may be in contradiction with optimal, highly mechanised silvicultural practices. Another remarkable change is the wood industry's demand for increasingly small diameters, which is also offers a means for adapting forests to climate change. But this trend is controversial. The revisiting of silvicultural methods that began in 1990 remains topical, with a view to establishing stands that are less capital-intensive and more mixed. However, the implementation of these methods has changed. Diversification of silvicultural practices might be further broadened by production models for medium-diameter trees with very little tapering. 2014, Ecole Nationale du Genie Rural des Eaux et des Forets. All rights reserved.


Granier A.,University of Lorraine | Breda N.,University of Lorraine | Badeau V.,University of Lorraine | Fiquepron J.,CNPF IDF
Revue Forestiere Francaise | Year: 2012

Forests have a key influence on the water cycle through properties related to their structure, in particular the development of the canopy and of root systems. Any examination of forests as suppliers of water must consider the following two elements: - overall, the more productive the forest, the greater its water consumption, which accordingly reduces drainage flow. In other words, there is a trade-off between biomass production and the amount of water returned to the environment; - water drained under forest canopies to streams, springs or the water table is generally of good quality. A self-evidence worth remembering is that quality and quantity of water cannot be dissociated: the service of "quality water" implies availability of sufficient quantities over time. Knowledge and management of forest-sourced water are based on knowledge of the water balance and its variations in space and time. This article discusses the various causes of variations in water balance connected with climate, soil conditions, forest species, silvicultural practices, all of which have an impact on the amount of water drained. It also provides some comparisons with other major vegetation types. To answer the question of how to quantitatively assess the amount of water supplied by forests and how to modulate that quantity by management, we implemented a modelling approach that uses a water balance model with a daily time step. Using site-specific parameters and meteorological data, the model simulates the flow from actual evapotranspiration, rainwater at ground level, the water content of the soil and drainage. Two forest sites were selected for the study described in this article. These are forests in eastern France with contrasting rainfall patterns for which we simulated, under current climate conditions, the effect on the volume of water drained of five different silvicultural scenarios.

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