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The nutritional diagnosis based on the analysis of leaf tissue is an efficient tool for detecting imbalances and help the process of fertilization recommendation. Thus, it was evaluated to establish preliminary DRIS norms, and to derive critical levels and sufficiency ranges of nutrients in the leaf tissue to Paluma guava cultivar in commercial orchards growing conditions in the State of São Paulo. It was evaluated six harvests of fruit production, from organic and mineral fertilizer, totaling 168 samples. The order of limiting nutrients for failure in descending order were: Fe> K> Mn> Ca> B> N> P> Cu> S> Mg> Zn, and limiting excess in descending order were: Cu> Fe> P> Mn = Mg> Zn> Ca> B> K> S> N. The tracks from the appropriate DRIS indices are: 18-21, 1.5 to 1.7, 15-17, 8-11, 1.8 to 2.5 and 2.5 to 2.9 (g kg-1) for the macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, respectively, and 26-38, 5-57, 54-112, 53-101 and 13-126 (mg kg-1) for the micronutrients B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively. The yield of guava was related to nutritional status. Source


A better understanding of the differences between the levels of nutrients, depending on the type of pruning used in the cultivation of the guava tree, may allow a more adequate understanding of the physiological processes of this fruit. The analysis of flowers is a tool that can be used to assist in assessing the nutritional status of crops, especially perennials. We evaluated the effects of different types of pruning on nutrient concentrations in flowers and fruit, at different developmental stages and in different parts of the fruit. The study was carried out in Vista Alegre do Alto, in orchards of guava variety Paluma. Flowers and fruit were collected in orchards, one under heavy pruning and the other with continuous pruning. The fruit were collected in two stages (two millimeters length and mature) and divided into basal part and apex, with the top toward the stalk. Flowers were collected in the same orchards as the fruits, sampling the basal part and apex of the flowers. F tests were performed and, when necessary, the Scott-Knott test at α= 5%. Overall, there were nutritional differences among flowers and fruits in relation to the type of pruning employed; drastic pruning provided higher levels of nutrients compared with continuous pruning. In relation to the portion of the samples, especially for fruit, there were differences between the apex and base, as well as between different stages of fruit collection. Source


News Article | August 14, 2016
Site: http://www.theenergycollective.com/rss/all

China has become the usual suspect when it comes to commodity prices. Whether it’s crude oil or copper, LNG or gold, China is almost invariably the first place everyone looks for an explanation as to why prices are up or down. Now Asia’s largest economy is on its way to swing the international gas market, and swing it big. According to CNPC, the state-owned oil and gas giant, natural gas imports could jump to as much as 270 billion cubic meters annually by 2030. To put this in perspective, gas imports in 2015 totaled 53 billion cubic meters, with total consumption that year reaching 200 billion cubic meters. The increase will come largely thanks to a general shift toward cleaner energy sources as China seeks to clean up its image as one of the biggest polluters in the world. The shift is also part of a government strategy to move away from heavy industry to services as a growth driver. The news, though just an estimate, as noted by CNPC’s head of the International Department Li Yueqiang, could be the best news for the global gas industry in a while. With a saturated market and prices at multi-year lows, things recently have been as gloomy for the gas business as it has been for oil. A fourfold rise in imports in 14 years is not a chance to be missed by gas producers. But then again, not every prospective exporter to China is equal. Gazprom is perhaps best placed for the moment. The Russian company is already working, in partnership with CNPC, on the Power of Siberia pipeline that will have an annual capacity of 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas. Naturally, Gazprom is working to make sure there is demand for this gas, with its latest move in this respect a memorandum of understanding with CNPC for the construction of gas-fired power plants. Related: The Rumors Are Back! Oil Rallies On OPEC Chatter Russia as a whole is also better placed than potential competitors for the moment. Last year, CNPC’s deputy director-general told media that China could import as much as 100 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually by 2020. The figure includes both pipeline gas and LNG. LNG is where Russian suppliers may face stiff competition from major producers such as Australia. The Asian LNG market is depressed due to oversupply, but with China undertaking to cut harmful emissions by, among other measures, increasing the share of gas in its energy mix to 60 percent, things are set to change. There is also another factor that could neutralize the significance of CNPC’s estimates, and that’s local production. China has huge shale gas resources, and local energy majors are paying growing attention to the development of these resources. Sinopec, for one, plans to increase its local gas production twofold by 2020. It doesn’t become clear from the CNPC estimate whether this looming increase in local production has been fully factored into the calculation of the import figures, and it could make a huge difference. In any case, one thing is certain: China will become a major market swinger when it comes to natural gas. The post, China Could Quadruple Gas Imports By 2030, was first published on OilPrice.com.


News Article
Site: http://news.yahoo.com/energy/

LONDON/DOHA (Reuters) - Qatar Petroleum is interested in the Mozambique gas business of Italian energy group Eni and could opt to join Exxon Mobil in buying a multibillion-dollar stake, sources familiar with the matter said. State-controlled Eni is looking to reduce a 50 percent stake in its giant Mozambique gas acreage as part of plans to sell 5 billion euros of assets over the next two years. Last month sources told Reuters Exxon had reached a deal that could give it an operating stake in the onshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant, while leaving Eni in control of the Area 4 gas fields feeding it. Qatar Petroleum is in talks with Exxon and Eni on some kind of involvement in Mozambique which could involve a joint investment with the U.S. major, one senior QP source said, adding the deal was not a classic joint venture structure. A second Doha-based source, who declined to be named as not authorized to speak publicly, said Qatar Petroleum had been looking at Eni's Area 4 field as well as adjoining acreage of Anadarko Petroleum Corp but added the focus was on Eni. "The expectation is that Qatar Petroleum and Exxon will go in on this together," the source said, adding a Qatar Petroleum delegation planned to visit Mozambique before the year end. The sources cautioned no decision had as yet been taken by the Qatari company. Qatar Petroleum did not respond to requests for comment and Exxon and Eni declined to comment. Saad al-Kaabi, Qatar Petroleum CEO, recently confirmed the group was looking at assets in Africa. Located in Mozambique's Rovuma Basin, Eni's Area 4 is one of the biggest discoveries of recent times, holding about 85 trillion cubic feet of gas. Eni CEO Claudio Descalzi, who has spoken of selling a stake of up to 25 percent, said earlier this month a detailed agreement had been reached with a partner. In 2013 Eni sold 20 percent of Area 4 to China's CNPC for $4.2 billion but since then oil and gas prices have dropped by more than half. A banker with knowledge of the matter said a 25 percent stake in the field could be worth in the region of 2 billion euros. Exxon and QP are already close business partners in Qatar, where Exxon's technical know-how helped the tiny Gulf state to develop its gas resources and become the world's biggest as well as lowest-cost LNG producer. Since then, both companies have jointly moved to exploit international LNG growth opportunities, including plans to build the Golden Pass liquefaction plant in the United States and bidding for exploration acreage in Cyprus. A moratorium on new Qatari gas production since 2005 has hobbled domestic expansion opportunities at a time of intense competition for global LNG market share as new producers such as Australia challenge Qatar's dominance. "The (Mozambique) gas will go east and so having Qatar on board with all its experience makes a lot of sense," a banker with knowledge of the matter said.


News Article
Site: http://news.yahoo.com/energy/

The logo of Italian energy company Eni is seen at an Agip gas station in Lugano, Switzerland June 3, 2016. REUTERS/Arnd Wiegmann MILAN (Reuters) - Italian oil firm Eni has wrapped up long-running talks to sell a multi-billion dollar stake in its planned Mozambique liquefied natural gas (LNG) development to Exxon Mobil, two sources with knowledge of the matter said. "The deal is done but won't be announced for several months at Exxon's request," one of the sources said. Eni declined to comment, while a spokesman for Exxon said, "We do not comment on market rumours or speculation". The offshore gas reserves already discovered by Eni in Area 4 are large enough to need a giant land-based LNG export plant whose proximity to Asian and Middle Eastern growth markets makes it potentially a highly-lucrative project. But talks to bring in a technically-savvy partner with deep pockets like Exxon have dragged on due to a differences over valuations in the light of falling oil and gas prices. In 2013 Eni sold 20 percent of its Area 4 licence to China's CNPC for $4.2 billion but since then oil and gas prices have come down by more than half. However, last year Mozambique awarded Exxon three offshore exploration licence blocks of its own which sit to the south of Eni's discoveries, giving a new dimension to development prospects. "As you are aware, on October 28, 2015, Exxon was awarded three offshore blocks in Mozambique," the spokesman for Exxon said. "We look forward to further discussions with the Mozambique government on the development of a production-sharing contract for the blocks." Eni has been reluctant to sell too much of its 50 percent stake in the Area 4 permit where as operator it has already found 85 trillion cubic feet of gas. But in recent weeks Eni Chief Executive Claudio Descalzi has raised the possibility of it selling up to a 25 percent stake, up from the 10-15 percent previously on offer. The two sources said after lengthy talks, Eni and Exxon have now agreed terms and "sealed" a deal that could give Exxon its desired operating stake in the onshore LNG export plant while Eni would retain control over the Area 4 gas fields feeding it. Last week Descalzi reiterated Eni's desire to remain operator for the gas fields. "Our model is to remain and keep the operatorship or keep, in any case, a clear control on the asset - the asset that we discovered," he told analysts. While Eni will export gas as LNG from at least one floating offshore platform in the Coral field development in Area 4, the main focus of work will be on the larger land-based plants. The Coral field will remain outside the scope of the deal with Exxon, the sources said, and Eni has earmarked LNG from the Phase I development of Coral to BP.

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