Lizal L.M.,CNB |
Tashpulatov S.N.,CERGE EI
Energy Economics | Year: 2014
Promoting competition among electricity producers is primarily targeted at ensuring fair electricity prices for consumers. Producers could, however, withhold part of production facilities (i.e., apply a capacity cutting strategy) and thereby push more expensive production facilities to satisfy demand for electricity. This behavior could lead to a higher price determined through a uniform price auction. Using the case of the England and Wales wholesale electricity market we empirically analyze whether producers indeed did apply a capacity cutting strategy. For this purpose we examine the bidding behavior of producers during high- and low-demand trading periods within a trading day. We find statistical evidence for the presence of capacity cutting by several producers, which is consistent with the regulatory authority's reports. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Coego A.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular Of Plantas |
Coego A.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular Of Plantas Csic |
Brizuela E.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular Of Plantas |
Brizuela E.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular Of Plantas Csic |
And 97 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2014
Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of gene expression in all organisms. In eukaryotes, TFs are often represented by functionally redundant members of large gene families. Overexpression might prove a means to unveil the biological functions of redundant TFs; however, constitutive overexpression of TFs frequently causes severe developmental defects, preventing their functional characterization. Conditional overexpression strategies help to overcome this problem. Here, we report on the TRANSPLANTA collection of Arabidopsis lines, each expressing one of 949 TFs under the control of a β-estradiol-inducible promoter. Thus far, 1636 independent homozygous lines, representing an average of 2.6 lines for every TF, have been produced for the inducible expression of 634 TFs. Along with a GUS-GFP reporter, randomly selected TRANSPLANTA lines were tested and confirmed for conditional transgene expression upon β-estradiol treatment. As a proof of concept for the exploitation of this resource, β-estradiol-induced proliferation of root hairs, dark-induced senescence, anthocyanin accumulation and dwarfism were observed in lines conditionally expressing full-length cDNAs encoding RHD6, WRKY22, MYB123/TT2 and MYB26, respectively, in agreement with previously reported phenotypes conferred by these TFs. Further screening performed with other TRANSPLANTA lines allowed the identification of TFs involved in different plant biological processes, illustrating that the collection is a powerful resource for the functional characterization of TFs. For instance, ANAC058 and a TINY/AP2 TF were identified as modulators of ABA-mediated germination potential, and RAP2.10/DEAR4 was identified as a regulator of cell death in the hypocotyl-root transition zone. Seeds of TRANSPLANTA lines have been deposited at the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre for further distribution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.