John B.,Bharathiyar University |
Sulaiman C.T.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research |
George S.,CMS College |
Reddy V.R.K.,Bharathiyar University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014
Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the total content of phenolics and flavonoids in selected medicinal plants such as Atuna indica, Baliospermum montanum, Chukrasia tabularis, Humboldtia brunonis var. rakthapushpa and Soymida febrifuga. Methods: The total phenolic content (TPC) was estimated spectrophotometrically using Folin Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content (TFC) was measured by aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. Results: The results showed that Chukrasia tabularis (belonging to the family Meliaceae) is the richest source of phenolics and flavonoid (total Phenolic content: 17.2 mg GAE/g and total flavonoid content: 3.82 QE/g). The lowest phenolic content was noticed in Baliospermum montanum (2.72 mg GAE/g) and lowest flavonoid content was observed in Humboldtia brunoniss var. raktapushpa (0.98 mg QE/g). Conclusion: A significant linear correlation was observed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The high contents of phenolic compounds indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity. The Chukrasia tabularis can be regarded as promising plant species for natural plant sources of antioxidants with high potential value for drug preparation.
Soman S.,Cochin University of Science and Technology |
Korah P.K.,Cochin University of Science and Technology |
Jayanarayanan S.,Cochin University of Science and Technology |
Mathew J.,CMS College |
Paulose C.S.,Cochin University of Science and Technology
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2012
In the present study we investigate the effect of Withania somnifera (WS) root extract and Withanolide A (WA) in restoring spatial memory deficit by inhibiting oxidative stress induced alteration in glutamergic neurotransmission. We demonstrate significant cellular loss in hippocampus of epileptic rats, visualized through decreased TOPRO stained neurons. Impaired spatial memory was observed in epileptic rats after Radial arm maze test. Treatment with WS and WA has resulted in increased number of TOPRO stained neurons. Enhanced performance of epileptic rats treated with WS and WA was observed in Radial arm maze test. The antioxidant activity of WS and WA was studied using superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) assays in the hippocampus of experimental rats. The SOD activity and CAT activity decreased significantly in epileptic group, treatment with WS and WA significantly reversed the enzymatic activities to near control. Real time gene expression studies of SOD and GPx showed significant up-regulation in epileptic group compared to control. Treatment with WS and WA showed significant reversal to near control. Lipid peroxidation quantified using TBARS assay, significantly increased in epileptic rats. Treatment withWSandWAshowed significant reversal to near control. NMDA receptor expression decreased in epileptic rats. The treatment with WS and WA resulted in physiological expression of NMDA receptors. This data suggests that oxidative stress effects membrane constitution resulting in decreased NMDA receptor density leading to impaired spatial memory. Treatment with WS and WA has ameliorated spatial memory deficits by enhancing antioxidant system and restoring altered NMDA receptor density.
Thomas P.C.,CMS College |
Sagayaraj P.,Loyola College
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015
Single crystals of pure and Cu2+ doped semiorganic L-argininium dinitrate (LADN) crystals were grown by slow solvent evaporation technique, with the vision to improve the physicochemical properties of the sample. Single crystal XRD studies of both pure and doped samples were carried out. The thermal (DTA, TGA and DSC) studies were carried out and the results are compared. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Rajisha K.R.,CMS College |
Maria H.J.,Mahatma Gandhi University |
Pothan L.A.,Bishop Moore College |
Ahmad Z.,UiTM |
Thomas S.,Mahatma Gandhi University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014
Potato starch nanocrystals were found to serve as an effective reinforcing agent for natural rubber (NR). Starch nanocrystals were obtained by the sulfuric acid hydrolysis of potato starch granules. After mixing the latex and the starch nanocrystals, the resulting aqueous suspension was cast into film by solvent evaporation method. The composite samples were successfully prepared by varying filler loadings, using a colloidal suspension of starch nanocrystals and NR latex. The morphology of the nanocomposite prepared was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FESEM analysis revealed the size and shape of the crystal and their homogeneous dispersion in the composites. The crystallinity of the nanocomposites was studied using XRD analysis which indicated an overall increase in crystallinity with filler content. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites such as stress-strain behavior, tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break were measured according to ASTM standards. The tensile strength and modulus of the composites were found to improve tremendously with increasing nanocrystal content. This dramatic increase observed can be attributed to the formation of starch nanocrystal network. This network immobilizes the polymer chains leading to an increase in the modulus and other mechanical properties. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Habtemariam S.,University of Greenwich |
Varghese G.K.,Cms College
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2014
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia due to either lack of insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance. The prevalence of T2D along with its major risk factor, obesity, has been increasing with an epidemic proportion in recent years. To date, there is no drug of cure for diabetes and the existing therapeutic approaches have serious drawbacks including side effects and loss of efficacy during prolonged use. Dietary polyphenols are one group of natural products that have shown promise as potential antidiabetic agents. In this review, their molecular mechanisms of action including, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, receptor agonist/antagonist effect and modulation of key signal transduction cascades, glucose transport, enzyme activity, receptor agonistic/antagonist effect, etc. in major insulin-sensitive cells are discussed. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.
Habtemariam S.,University of Greenwich |
Varghese G.K.,CMS College
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2015
Premna serratifolia Linn. (syn: . P. corymbosa (Burm. f.) Merr., P. integrifolia L. and P. obtusifolia R. Br.) is a member of the Verbenaceae family that is extensively used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. As part of our continuous pharmacological and phytochemical studies on medicinal plants, we have screened the methanolic extracts of leaves, root bark (RB) and root wood of P. serratifolia for cytotoxic activity against two cancer cell lines: SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma and B16 melanoma cells. The RB extract that showed promising activity was fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity followed by a combination of Sephadex LH-20 column and Combiflash chromatography as well as HPLC to afford the active principle. Comprehensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY) and MS analysis revealed the identity of the isolated compound as 11,12,16-trihydroxy-2-oxo-5-methyl-10-demethyl-abieta-1,6,8,11,13-pentene that appears to be a novel compound based on a new diterpene skeleton. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compound was 21 and 23 times higher than the crude extract against the SHSY-5Yand B16 cells, respectively. The novel compound also possesses in vitro antioxidant effects as evidenced by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect where an IC50 value of 20.4±1.3 μM was obtained. In comparison, the positive control, caffeic acid, showed an IC50 value of 14.4±1.6 μM. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sheny D.S.,Mar Ivanios College |
Sheny D.S.,CMS College |
Philip D.,Mar Ivanios College |
Mathew J.,Mar Ivanios College
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013
An environment friendly approach for the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) using dried leaf powder of Anacardium occidentale is reported. The formation of Pt NPs is monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR spectra reveal that proteins are bound to Pt nanoparticles. TEM images show irregular rod shaped particles which are crystalline. The quantity of leaf powder plays a vital role in determining the size of particles. Synthesized NPs exhibit good catalytic activity in the reduction of aromatic nitrocompound. The effective thermal conductivity of synthesized Pt/water nanofluid has been measured and found to be enhanced to a good extent. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Diana K.J.,Kerala University |
George K.V.,Cms College
Journal of Crystal Growth | Year: 2013
The effect of aqueous seed extract of Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman on in vitro crystallization and growth patterns of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O, CHPD) crystals was studied using single diffusion gel growth technique. Reduction in growth of CHPD crystals was noticed with increasing concentrations of seed extract. The morphology of CHPD or brushite crystals was studied by microscopy. The structural changes of the treated crystals were assessed by SEM, FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DTA analysis. It is expected that this multidisciplinary approach for in vitro crystallization and characterization of CHPD crystals will provide a better explanation to develop novel strategies for prevention of urinary stones. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Varghese G.K.,Cms College |
Bose L.V.,Kerala University |
Habtemariam S.,University of Greenwich
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2013
Context: Cassia alata Linn. [syn. Senna alata (L.) Roxb.] (Caesalpiniaceae) is used for treating various disease conditions including diabetes but its mechanism(s) of action and active principles remain to be elucidated. Objective: The antidiabetic principles were identified using an in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition study. Materials and methods: The methanol extract of leaves of C. alata, which showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50, 63.75±12.81g/ml), was fractionated. Active fractions were taken for further analysis by a variety of techniques including HPLC and Combiflash chromatography. The identity of the isolated compounds was established by spectroscopic analysis while their potential antidiabetic activity was assessed by in vitro enzyme inhibition studies. Results: The α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of the crude extract was far better than the standard clinically used drug, acarbose (IC50, 107.31±12.31g/ml). A subsequent fractionation of the crude extract was made using solvents of ascending polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water). The ethyl acetate (IC50, 2.95±0.47g/ml) and n-butanol (IC50, 25.80±2.01g/ml) fractions which contained predominantly kaempferol (56.7±7.7M) and kaempferol 3-O-gentiobioside (50.0±8.5M), respectively, displayed the highest carbohydrate enzyme inhibitory effect. Discussion: One of the possible antidiabetic mechanisms of action of C. alata is by inhibiting carbohydrate digestion. This is the first report on α-glucosidase activity of kaempferol 3-O-gentiobioside. Conclusion: Considering the activity profile of the crude extract and isolated bioactive compounds, further in vivo and clinical studies on C. alata extracts and compounds are well merited. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Sheny D.S.,Mar Ivanios College |
Sheny D.S.,CMS College |
Mathew J.,Mar Ivanios College |
Philip D.,Mar Ivanios College
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2012
A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.