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Dhanbād, India
Dhanbād, India
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Raman R.P.,Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division | Pani Prasad K.,Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division | Makesh M.,Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division | Pradeep M.A.,CMFRI
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2015

Paraprobiotics, also known as ghost probiotics, are non-viable microbial cells which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the host. However, the advantage of non-viable microbes over their viable counterparts is a much debated topic in aquaculture. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate paraprobiotic effect of heat-killed Lactobacillusplantarum on giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted by feeding prawn juveniles (mean weight±SE: 0.54±0.03g) with three experimental diets prepared by supplementing basal diet (Crude protein: 38%; Gross energy: 387kcal100g-1) with different concentrations of heat-killed probiotics bacteria viz. HKPB1 (107cfug-1 diet), HKPB2 (108cfug-1 diet), HKPB3 (109cfug-1 diet) and control diet (unsupplemented diet). In the present study, growth parameters viz. WG % and SGR and feed utilization parameters viz. FCE, FCR and PER, though improved marginally in all experimental groups, were found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) compared to the control. The immune parameters viz. total hemocyte count (THC), phenol oxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) activity and clearance efficiency were significantly improved (P<0.05) with concurrent decrease (P<0.05) in cumulative mortality against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in all the experimental groups except for HKPB1, where PO and RB activity did not improve significantly (P>0.05) compared to the control. Among the experimental groups, though the improvement in immune parameters was higher (P<0.05) in HKPB2 and HKPB3 compared to HKPB1 and the control, no significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between HKPB2 and HKPB3. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the application of heat-killed L.plantarum at a concentration of 108cfug-1 diet, though not effective in augmenting the growth and feed utilization parameters, can significantly improve immune parameters and disease resistance of M.rosenbergii in the laboratory condition. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Raman R.P.,Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division | Pani Prasad K.,Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division | Makesh M.,Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division | Pradeep M.A.,CMFRI
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate probiotic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum on giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted by feeding prawn juveniles (mean weight±SE: 0.54±0.03g) with three experimental diets prepared by supplementing basal diet (Crude protein: 38%; Gross energy: 387kcal100g-1) with different concentrations of probiotics bacteria viz. T1 (107cfug-1 diet), T2 (108cfug-1 diet), T3 (109cfug-1 diet) and control diet (unsupplemented diet). In the present study, growth parameters viz. WG% and SGR and feed utilization parameters viz. FCE, FCR and PER increased significantly (P<0.05) in all the experimental groups compared to the control whereas, the improvement observed between T2 and T3 was not significant (P>0.05). The carcass protein content increased significantly (P<0.05) with concurrent decrease (P<0.05) in carbohydrate content when prawn juveniles were fed with diet supplemented with higher dose of probiotic bacteria (T3). The Lactobacillus sp. count increased significantly (P<0.05) in the gastro-intestinal tract with concurrent decrease (P<0.05) in gram negative bacteria count in all the experimental groups compared to the control whereas, the improvement observed between T2 and T3 was not significant (P>0.05). However, Lactobacillus sp. count decreased significantly (P<0.05) within 7days after switching to basal diet which indicates that probiotic bacteria failed to sustain its population in the digestive tract of prawn. The immune parameters viz. total hemocyte count (THC), phenol oxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) activity and clearance efficiency significantly improved (P<0.05) with concurrent decrease (P<0.05) in cumulative mortality against A. hydrophila challenge in all the experimental groups except for T1, where PO and RB activity did not improve significantly (P>0.05) compared to the control. Among the experimental groups, though the improvement in immune parameters was highest (P<0.05) in T3, no significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between T2 and T3. The results obtained from the present study indicate that L. plantarum can be used to improve the host associated microflora, growth, feed efficiency, carcass biochemical composition and immune response of M. rosenbergii in the laboratory condition. Moreover, though a dose response was observed in the present study, the improvement was not significant between T2 and T3 and therefore, studies with further higher concentration should be conducted for its efficient commercial level field application. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Raman R.P.,Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division | Prasad K.P.,Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division | Marappan M.,Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division | Pradeep M.A.,CMFRI
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2016

A 90-day experiment was conducted by rearing 1020 prawn juveniles (0.54 ± 0.03 g) in water supplemented with three different concentrations of probiotic bacteria viz. T1 (107 cfu L-1), T2 (108 cfu L-1), T3 (109 cfu L-1) and the control (C) (unsupplemented water), to evaluate probiotic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum. In the present study, the growth parameters (WG%, SGR) and feed utilization parameters (FCR, PER) significantly improved (P < 0.05) in T3. The growth and feed utilization parameters though improved marginally in T1 and T2, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05) compared to the control. The gastro-intestinal Lactobacillus sp. count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in all the treatment groups, whereas the decrease in harmful bacteria was significant (P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the control. Similarly, the Lactobacillus sp. count in culture water increased significantly (P < 0.05) in all the experimental groups, whereas the decrease in harmful bacteria was significant (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3. The immune parameters (THC, PO and RB activity) and clearance efficiency significantly improved (P < 0.05) in T3 with concurrent decrease (P < 0.05) in cumulative mortality against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. However, water quality did not improved (P > 0.05) in any of the treatment groups. The results indicate that Lactobacillus plantarum at a minimum concentration of 109 cfu L-1 could be used as water additive to confer its probiotic effect in prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Moreover, future studies with higher probiotic concentrations should be conducted for its efficient commercial scale field application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Singh B.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | Patial J.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | Sharma P.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | Chandra S.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology | Year: 2011

A simple and eco-friendly process for the isomerization of carvone to carvacrol in the presence of SO4 2-/ZrO2 catalyst has been described. The reaction is conducted without solvent at moderate temperature with reaction times of 1 to 2 h. In most instances, nearly quantitative yield of carvacrol is obtained without any by-products. The total acidity, different acid concentration, zircona phases and crystallites size were co-related with the catalytic activity. Activation energy is found to be 11.317 kJ/mol using 8% SO4 2- ions modified zircona. The bulk and surface properties of the prepared catalysts are examined by X-ray powder diffraction, BET surface area and ammonia-TPD.

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