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Herrmann S.,Zittau Gorlitz University of Applied Sciences | Kretzschmar H.J.,Zittau Gorlitz University of Applied Sciences | Teske V.,CMAI Europe GmbH | Vogel E.,University of Rostock | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2010

Accurate calculation algorithms for the thermodynamic and transport properties of humid air are required for modeling compressed air energy-storage power cycles and designing their individual components. The development of such algorithms was part of the Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) project, which had been supported by the European Commission. To obtain the statements of this paper, all available experimental data and new experimental data generated within the AA-CAES project were used as basis for comparisons between the different models for thermodynamic and transport properties. As a result, one model for calculating thermodynamic and one model for transport properties of humid air in AA-CAES cycle design and operation is recommended. Their application is possible for wide ranges of temperature from 243 K up to 2000 K, total pressure from 0.611 kPa up to 100 MPa, and water content up to 10% mass fraction with some restrictions concerning the calculation of viscosity {eng} and thermal conductivity λ (up to 1000 K for both and up to 40 MPa for λ). These models have been implemented into a property library, which meets the requirements of programs for calculating compressed air energy-storage cycles. The developed property library can be used for the daily work of an engineer who calculates such cycles. The results summarized in this paper have been used for preparing Section 6, "Real Gas" of the ASME Report No. STP-TS-012, " Thermophysical Properties of Gases used in Working Gas Turbine Applications. © 2010 by ASME.


Teske V.,CMAI Europe GmbH | Buttig D.,KLH Kaltetechnik GmbH | Vogel E.,University of Rostock
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2010

For the first time, results of high-precision measurements of the viscosity coefficient of triethylamine vapor at low densities are reported. The relative measurements with an all-quartz oscillating-disk viscometer were carried out along seven isochores at densities from 0.002 to 0.009 mol m-3 in the temperature range between 298 and 498 K. The uncertainty is estimated to be ±0.2% at ambient temperature, increasing up to ±0.3% at higher temperatures. First isothermal values were recalculated from the original experimental data and then evaluated with a first-order expansion for the viscosity, in terms of density. In addition, viscosity values of the saturated vapor were determined at low temperatures. The results are utilized to model the viscosity coefficient of triethylamine vapor at moderately low densities. A so-called individual correlation on the basis of the extended theorem of corresponding states was employed to describe the zero-density viscosity coefficient, whereas the Rainwater-Friend theory was used to represent the initial density dependence expressed as second viscosity virial coefficient. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


For the first time, results of precision measurements of the viscosity coefficient of the binary vapor mixture methanol-triethylamine at low densities are reported. The relative measurements with an all-quartz oscillating-disk viscometer were carried out for nearly equimolar mixtures along five isochores at densities from 0.010 to 0.033moldm -3 as well as for a mixture of the mole fraction y meth=0.3322 at a density 0.016moldm -3 in the temperature range between 298 and 498K. The uncertainty is estimated to be ±0.2% at ambient temperature, increasing to ±0.3% at higher temperatures. Isothermal values of a mixture with the averaged mole fraction y meth=0.5002 were recalculated from the original experimental data and evaluated with a first-order expansion for the viscosity, in terms of density. A so-called individual correlation on the basis of the extended theorem of corresponding states was employed to describe the interaction viscosity in the limit of zero density. Some data points at low temperatures had to be excluded from this calculation, since the measurements were performed in the saturated vapor phase. For these data points the vapor-liquid equilibrium had to be evaluated to assign the correct mole fraction in the vapor to the measured viscosity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Morrin M.,CMAI Europe GmbH
Glass International | Year: 2010

The state of the global soda ash industry in 2010, which has faced substantial challenges from a tight market to a situation of oversupply, is discussed. Soda ash demand is driven by the glass industry, glass production represents more than half of total world soda ash demand. Chinese producers have not been immune to the industry downturn in 2009. Capacity additions in China have been in excess of demand and today there is considerable over-capacity in China. In China, domestic demand in the first eight months of 2010 is up by 18.3% or 1.9 million metric tons on the same period in 2009. In Brazil, the demand is set to reach a record level in 2010. In 2010, China is much less aggressive in exports. With rising cost pressures in China, lower soda ash prices in international markets compared to 2009, higher freight rates and continued strong competition in export markets, the Chinese are unable to compete. However, some producers are now facing cost pressures in China and Europe.

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