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Kouanda S.,Public Health | Tougri H.,Public Health | Cisse M.,UNICEF | Simpore J.,Cerba | And 6 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2010

Mother-to-child transmission remains the main cause of global pediatric HIV infections, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many interventions based on single-dose antiretroviral therapy have been implemented to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In resource-limited settings, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has only been recommended for HIV-infected pregnant women requiring treatment for their own health. Here, we assessed the efficacy over 18 months of maternal HAART versus peripartum short-course antiretroviral therapy (SCART) regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients from two medical centers in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The PMTCT files and registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006 were obtained from routine data collected at these sites. The main assessment criterion was the rate of HIV-1 positivity in children born to HIV-positive mothers as measured with HIV-1 rapid tests at 18 months. A total of 586 pregnant HIV-1-infected women in PMTCT programs were selected. Among these women, 260 were undergoing HAART and 326 received single-dose nevirapine (91.3%) or single-dose zidovudine (8.7%) at delivery. HIV-1 serological tests were performed on 454 children at 18 months old. The rate of HIV-1 vertical transmission was 0% (0/195) in the HAART group and 4.6% (12/259) in the single-dose monotherapy group (P < 0.01). Eight infants in the HAART cohort and 30 in the SCART cohort were breastfed; three in the SCART group were HIV-positive. A total of 62 children died, 19 in the HAART group and 43 in the single-dose monotherapy group. Our study confirms that HAART for mothers effectively reduces the risk of infant HIV infection while preserving the breastfeeding option for mothers. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Zhang J.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Zhang J.,CMA Technologies, Inc. | Li L.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Li L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2015

Summer rainfall in north-central China, accounted for 70% of the annual rainfall, is sensitive to anomalies in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and westerlies due to lying in the EASM marginal belt. Summer rainfall and the durations and frequency of dry spells were investigated using daily rainfall data from 332 weather stations, the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) re-analysis data and Climate Research Unit (CRU) surface temperature data. The results demonstrate that summer rainfall exhibits an 'early wetting later drying' pattern with a weak increasing in June and a dramatic decreasing trend in July and August (JA). Decreased rainfall in JA is associated with prolonged dry spells; the frequency and durations of dry spells exceeding 7 days increase, especially for dry spells exceeding 15 days. This increase in dry spell duration is positively correlated with a northward shift in planetary waves expressed by the 5700-gpm isoline at 500 hPa and the westerly jet at 200 hPa, which lead north-central China to close to the left of jet entrance and a positive vorticity convergence region on the high level, it is helpful to downward movements and less rainfall. The northward shift in planetary waves is affected by boundary forcing. Dramatic increases in temperature over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) result in a large temperature gradient and thermal contrast between the TP and mid-high latitude, and likely strengthening and widening the South Asian High (SAH) pattern and pressure gradient. These conditions contribute to the northward shift in planetary waves and prolonging dry spells. © 2015 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

Wang Y.,CMA Technologies, Inc. | Wang Y.,National Climate Center | Yan F.,Chinese Academy of Forestry
Journal of Natural Disasters | Year: 2014

Based on the NCEP reanalysis data and the monthly precipitation data of 723 meteorological stations, the characteristics of the rainfall anomalies in China in Nov. 2011 and the related large-scale atmosphere circulation over the Eurasia region were analyzed, and the effects of the La Nina event and Arctic oscillation on anomalies of rainfall and atmosphere circulation in China were studied. Results show that, affected by the La Nina event and the Arctic oscillation, atmosphere circulation over the Eurasia region appeared abnormal in November 2011. On one hand, the Indian Burma trough deepens and the west Pacific subtropical high extends westward, which strengthenes the transportation of the wet-warm air from the Bay of Bengal to the South China Sea and the west Pacific Ocean to Inland of China. On the other hand, the strengthening of the subtropical westerly jet and the jet axis fracture make the regions from the northeastern West China to North China and coastal areas of South China lie in the high-level divergence regions of jet south side, which strengthens the divergence of upper air and convergence of lower air in these regions. Due to the enough vapor conditions combined with a better uplifting conditions of vapor, the precipitation is more than normal in these two regions. Source

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.94K | Year: 2014

The government has identified the need for scientific measurements of the stimuli produced on a human surrogate for human effects testing of different non-lethal weapon technologies including blunt trauma, monochromatic and broadband light, blast over-pressure thermal energy, electrical current, chemical irritants and electromagnetic radiation. Given this wide variety of stimuli, CMA Technologies opted to team with the world"s leading manufacturer of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD), Humanetics Innovative Solutions, to use a mature human-surrogate with proven sensors, to include those for blunt trauma, thermal measurement and blast-overpressure, as a starting point for the design. CMA Technologies is proposing a disciplined systems engineering approach to thoroughly define measurement requirements and to select commercial-off-the shelf sensors that augment the existing system to meet the rest of the government"s measurement needs. CMA is proposing a modular approach where different sensors can be mounted on the ATD as needed for the measurement scenario. In some instances, a different ATD limb or attachment may be needed to use specific sensors while in other instances a sensor can be mounted on the ATD to obtain the necessary measurement. The data acquisition system will have"plug-and-play"functionality designed to incorporate any sensor with minimal user reconfiguration required.

Desai B.M.,Indian Institute of Management | D'Souza E.,CMA Technologies, Inc. | Mellor J.W.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Sharma V.P.,CMA Technologies, Inc. | Tamboli P.,University of Maryland College Park
Economic and Political Weekly | Year: 2011

For 40 years, India's agricultural growth rate has averaged less than one-third of the government's modest target of 4%. The sector's performance has been about the same before and after the economic reforms in the early 1990s. The reforms that brought a dramatic acceleration of growth in urban sectors have essentially had no effect on agriculture. Slow agricultural growth has had ill-effects on food security, food price inflation and poverty reduction because of the inadequate level and composition of public expenditure. Agricultural education, research, extension and a wide range of ancillary public institutions have also suffered. Agricultural growth always demands massive public goods provision and that in turn requires a radical reorientation of central, state and district government activities. This paper advocates a new integrated, technology-led strategy to pull out of what looks like, a vicious circle that agriculture is now caught in. Source

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