Cluster of Infectious Diseases

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Cluster of Infectious Diseases

Amsterdam, Netherlands
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Alberts C.J.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | Alberts C.J.,Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam | Van Der Loeff M.F.S.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | Van Der Loeff M.F.S.,Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam | And 5 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV-related pathogenesis. Methods: Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine, and blood from 3971 men recruited in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with 4 HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, nononcogenic only, and multiple infections). Results: A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive, and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.53-6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.69-6.95) prevalence. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), nononcogenic HPV only (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behavior, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting 2 or more recent sexual partners, whereas HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0 to 5 lifetime sexual partners. Conclusion: In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Heiligenberg M.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | Heiligenberg M.,Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam | Adams K.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | De Vries H.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2013

Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections are common in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Although C. trachomatis combined with HIV would be likely to enhance inflammation, the asymptomatic course suggests otherwise. We assessed local inflammation, mucosal damage, and cytokine concentrations in rectal mucosal fluid samples from patients with HIV (with or without the use of combination antiretroviral therapy [cART]) and with or without the presence of rectal C. trachomatis. Rectal swabs from 79 MSM (with and without C. trachomatis, HIV, and cART use) who reported a history of receptive anal sex were analyzed for neutrophil activation (measured by myeloperoxidase [MPO]), mucosal leakage (measured by albumin and alpha-2-macroglobulin), and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. C. trachomatis infection, HIV infection, and cART use in MSM had no differential effects on rectal neutrophilic inflammation and mucosal damage. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) was found to correlate with MPO, and MPO correlated with markers of mucosal damage. In HIV-negative participants, men with C. trachomatis infection had lower concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-1α, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) than men without rectal C. trachomatis infection (P = 0.005, 0.007, and 0.07, respectively). We found no difference in anal cytokine concentrations in HIV-infected participants in relation to the presence of C. trachomatis infection or cART use. In participants with rectal C. trachomatis infection, those who were HIV negative had lower median concentrations of IL-8 and IL-1α than those with HIV (P = 0.05 and 0.06, respectively). The slope of the regression line between MPO and IL-8 was reduced in participants with rectal C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis dampens cytokine concentrations but not in HIV-infected patients. The extent of mucosal damage was comparable in all patient groups. The apparent reduced neutrophil response to IL-8 in HIV-infected patients with C. trachomatis infection is in accordance with its asymptomatic course. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Rachinger A.,University of Amsterdam | Manyenga P.,University of Amsterdam | Burger J.A.,University of Amsterdam | Derks Van De Ven T.L.P.,University of Amsterdam | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection is infection of an HIV-1 seropositive individual with another HIV-1 strain. The rate at which HIV-1 superinfection occurs might be influenced by sexual behavior. Superinfection might be detected more often by analyzing longitudinal samples collected from time periods of unsafe sexual behavior. Methods. Envelope C2-C4 and gag sequences were generated from HIV-1 RNA from longitudinal serum samples that were obtained around self-reported sexual risk periods from 15 homosexual therapy-naïve men who participated in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV Infection and AIDS. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis was used to determine whether HIV-1 superinfection had occurred. Results. We studied a total of 124 serum samples from 15 patients with a median of 8 samples and of 5.8 person-years of follow-up per patient. Phylogenetic analysis on 907 C2-C4 env and 672 gag sequences revealed no case of HIV-1 superinfection, resulting in a superinfection incidence rate of 0 per 100 person-years [95%CI: 0 - -4.2]. Conclusions. We conclude that HIV-1 superinfection incidence is low in this subgroup of homosexual men who reported unsafe sexual behavior. Additional studies are required to estimate the impact of also other factors, which may determine the risk to acquire HIV-1 superinfection. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Heiligenberg M.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | Heiligenberg M.,Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam | Rijnders B.,Erasmus Medical Center | Van Der Loeff M.F.S.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | And 9 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: In the Netherlands, no guidelines exist for routine sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men having sex with men (MSM). We assessed prevalence and factors associated with asymptomatic STI. Methods: MSM visiting HIV outpatient clinics of academic hospitals were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infection. Prevalence and risk factors were studied using logistic regression. Results: In total, 659 MSM were included between 2007 and 2008. STI were found in 16.0% of patients, mostly anal CT and syphilis. One new hepatitis B and 3 new hepatitis C infections were identified. In multivariate analyses, any STI (syphilis, CT, or NG) was associated with patient's age below 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-5.0), having had sex with 2 or more sexual partners (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.5), the use of the same sexual toys with a sexual partner (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.9), and enema use before sex (OR: 2.3, 95% 1.2-4.2). Syphilis was independently associated with fisting with gloves versus no fisting (OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.7-13.7) and with rimming (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.7-15.0). CT or NG were associated with age below 45 years (age 40-44 years: OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.3; age <40 years: OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.4), enema use before sex (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.4) and drug use during sex (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.0). Conclusions: High-risk sexual behavior was very common, and 16% of HIV-infected MSM in HIV care had an asymptomatic STI, mostly anal CT and syphilis. Development of STI screening guidelines is recommended.


Heymans R.,Public Health Laboratory | Schouls L.M.,University of Amsterdam | Van Der Heide H.G.J.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Schim Van Der Loeff M.F.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the Netherlands has increased in recent years. A multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was developed to assess the molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae and to elucidate transmission networks in high-risk groups in Amsterdam. The MLVA was evaluated using 5 variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci with various degrees of polymorphism that were amplified in 2 multiplex PCRs and were then separated and sized on an automated sequencer. The assessed number of repeats was used to create MLVA profiles that consisted of strings of 5 integers. The stability of the VNTR loci was assessed using isolates obtained from multiple anatomical locations from the same patient (n = 118) and from patients and their sexual partners (n = 55). When isolates with a single locus variant were considered to belong to the same MLVA type, 87% of samples from multiple anatomical locations and 88% of samples from sexual partners shared an MLVA type. MLVA was ultimately performed on 880 isolates that were previously genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the por-opa genes. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the MLVA profiles from 716 patient visits (one anatomical location per visit) classified 430 patient visits into 14 larger clusters (≥10 patient visits). In 7 clusters, 81% to 100% of isolates came from men who have sex with men (MSM); in 5 clusters, 79% to 100% of isolates came from heterosexuals; and 2 clusters contained isolates from fully mixed populations. Clusters also differed in characteristics such as ethnic background and coinfections. MLVA provided accurate identification of genetically related N. gonorrhoeae strains and revealed clusters of MSM and heterosexuals reflecting distinct transmission networks. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Two-hundred and forty-five heterosexual HIV-infected patients (58% women; median age 41 years) were screened for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during a routine visit at a large HIV outpatient clinic in the Netherlands. High-risk sexual behaviour was rare and STI prevalence was low: three Chlamydia trachomatis infections and one case of syphilis were diagnosed. These results suggest that, in the Netherlands, screening for STI during routine visits is currently not needed for asymptomatic heterosexual HIV-infected patients.


Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009, attendees of an STI clinic in Amsterdam were interviewed about sexual behavior and drug use during sex and tested for STI. Associations between sex-related drug use and STI were assessed separately for heterosexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and women. We examined whether drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior. Nine hundred sixty-one heterosexual men, 673 MSM, and 1188 women participated in this study. Of these, 11.9% had chlamydia, 3.4% gonorrhea, and 1.2% syphilis. Sex-related drug use in the previous 6 months was reported by 22.6% of heterosexual men, 51.6% of MSM, and 16.0% of women. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for demographics (and high-risk sexual behavior in MSM), sex-related drug use was associated with STI in MSM (any drugs and poppers) and women (GHB and XTC) but not in heterosexual men. Stratified analysis in MSM showed that sex-related use of poppers was associated with STI in HIV-negative MSM but not in HIV-infected MSM. Clients reported frequent sex-related drug use, which was associated with STI in MSM and women. In MSM, sex-related drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior but only in HIV-negative MSM. Prevention measures targeted at decreasing sex-related drug use could reduce the incidence of STI.


PubMed | Cluster of Infectious Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sexually transmitted diseases | Year: 2011

In the Netherlands, no guidelines exist for routine sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men having sex with men (MSM). We assessed prevalence and factors associated with asymptomatic STI.MSM visiting HIV outpatient clinics of academic hospitals were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infection. Prevalence and risk factors were studied using logistic regression.In total, 659 MSM were included between 2007 and 2008. STI were found in 16.0% of patients, mostly anal CT and syphilis. One new hepatitis B and 3 new hepatitis C infections were identified. In multivariate analyses, any STI (syphilis, CT, or NG) was associated with patients age below 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-5.0), having had sex with 2 or more sexual partners (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.5), the use of the same sexual toys with a sexual partner (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.9), and enema use before sex (OR: 2.3, 95% 1.2-4.2). Syphilis was independently associated with fisting with gloves versus no fisting (OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.7-13.7) and with rimming (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.7-15.0). CT or NG were associated with age below 45 years (age 40-44 years: OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.3; age <40 years: OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.4), enema use before sex (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.4) and drug use during sex (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.0).High-risk sexual behavior was very common, and 16% of HIV-infected MSM in HIV care had an asymptomatic STI, mostly anal CT and syphilis. Development of STI screening guidelines is recommended.


PubMed | Cluster of Infectious Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: AIDS (London, England) | Year: 2012

Two-hundred and forty-five heterosexual HIV-infected patients (58% women; median age 41 years) were screened for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during a routine visit at a large HIV outpatient clinic in the Netherlands. High-risk sexual behaviour was rare and STI prevalence was low: three Chlamydia trachomatis infections and one case of syphilis were diagnosed. These results suggest that, in the Netherlands, screening for STI during routine visits is currently not needed for asymptomatic heterosexual HIV-infected patients.


PubMed | Cluster of Infectious Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sexually transmitted diseases | Year: 2012

Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis).During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009, attendees of an STI clinic in Amsterdam were interviewed about sexual behavior and drug use during sex and tested for STI. Associations between sex-related drug use and STI were assessed separately for heterosexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and women. We examined whether drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior.Nine hundred sixty-one heterosexual men, 673 MSM, and 1188 women participated in this study. Of these, 11.9% had chlamydia, 3.4% gonorrhea, and 1.2% syphilis. Sex-related drug use in the previous 6 months was reported by 22.6% of heterosexual men, 51.6% of MSM, and 16.0% of women. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for demographics (and high-risk sexual behavior in MSM), sex-related drug use was associated with STI in MSM (any drugs and poppers) and women (GHB and XTC) but not in heterosexual men. Stratified analysis in MSM showed that sex-related use of poppers was associated with STI in HIV-negative MSM but not in HIV-infected MSM.Clients reported frequent sex-related drug use, which was associated with STI in MSM and women. In MSM, sex-related drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior but only in HIV-negative MSM. Prevention measures targeted at decreasing sex-related drug use could reduce the incidence of STI.

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