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Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands

De Vrieze N.H.N.,STI Outpatient Clinic | Van Rooijen M.,STI Outpatient Clinic | Van Der Loeff M.F.S.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | Van Der Loeff M.F.S.,University of Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections

Objectives To examine lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) trends over time among men who have sex with men (MSM) visiting the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic; to investigate anal LGV symptomatology; and to examine the positivity and characteristics of anorectal and inguinal LGV. Methods We included MSM consultations from whom a swab (from anorectum, bubo or an genital ulcer) was taken for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) screening. Anorectal swabs were taken from all MSM who reported receptive anorectal intercourse in the preceding 6 months. Ct positive samples were further tested with a pmpH PCR to identify L-genovars. Patient symptoms, clinical and anoscopic inflammatory signs, and STI co-infections were noted; Gram-stained anorectal mucosal smears were examined. Results Between January 2005 and June 2012, 48 570 consultations among MSM were conducted. In 3628/35 650 visits, anorectal Ct infections were diagnosed, including 411 anal LGV (1.2%). Moreover, 65/1649 genital ulcer swabs were Ct positive; 10 were inguinal LGV (0.6%) Since January 2011 a significant increase in the positivity of LGV occurred (p<0.0001). 89 (27.2%) anorectal LGV cases were asymptomatic. HIV prevalence among anorectal LGV cases was significantly higher (p=0.008) than among inguinal LGV cases. STI co-morbidity in anorectal LGV cases remained invariably high during the study period. Conclusions Since January 2011, LGV positivity in MSM consultations in Amsterdam has risen significantly. The great majority comprise anal LGV; inguinal LGV is rare. Anal LGV is asymptomatic in a quarter of cases. In all MSM with anal Ct infections LGV should be excluded, irrespective of symptoms or inflammatory signs. Source

Heymans R.,Public Health Laboratory | Schouls L.M.,University of Amsterdam | Van Der Heide H.G.J.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Schim Van Der Loeff M.F.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology

The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the Netherlands has increased in recent years. A multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was developed to assess the molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae and to elucidate transmission networks in high-risk groups in Amsterdam. The MLVA was evaluated using 5 variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci with various degrees of polymorphism that were amplified in 2 multiplex PCRs and were then separated and sized on an automated sequencer. The assessed number of repeats was used to create MLVA profiles that consisted of strings of 5 integers. The stability of the VNTR loci was assessed using isolates obtained from multiple anatomical locations from the same patient (n = 118) and from patients and their sexual partners (n = 55). When isolates with a single locus variant were considered to belong to the same MLVA type, 87% of samples from multiple anatomical locations and 88% of samples from sexual partners shared an MLVA type. MLVA was ultimately performed on 880 isolates that were previously genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the por-opa genes. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the MLVA profiles from 716 patient visits (one anatomical location per visit) classified 430 patient visits into 14 larger clusters (≥10 patient visits). In 7 clusters, 81% to 100% of isolates came from men who have sex with men (MSM); in 5 clusters, 79% to 100% of isolates came from heterosexuals; and 2 clusters contained isolates from fully mixed populations. Clusters also differed in characteristics such as ethnic background and coinfections. MLVA provided accurate identification of genetically related N. gonorrhoeae strains and revealed clusters of MSM and heterosexuals reflecting distinct transmission networks. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009, attendees of an STI clinic in Amsterdam were interviewed about sexual behavior and drug use during sex and tested for STI. Associations between sex-related drug use and STI were assessed separately for heterosexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and women. We examined whether drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior. Nine hundred sixty-one heterosexual men, 673 MSM, and 1188 women participated in this study. Of these, 11.9% had chlamydia, 3.4% gonorrhea, and 1.2% syphilis. Sex-related drug use in the previous 6 months was reported by 22.6% of heterosexual men, 51.6% of MSM, and 16.0% of women. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for demographics (and high-risk sexual behavior in MSM), sex-related drug use was associated with STI in MSM (any drugs and poppers) and women (GHB and XTC) but not in heterosexual men. Stratified analysis in MSM showed that sex-related use of poppers was associated with STI in HIV-negative MSM but not in HIV-infected MSM. Clients reported frequent sex-related drug use, which was associated with STI in MSM and women. In MSM, sex-related drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior but only in HIV-negative MSM. Prevention measures targeted at decreasing sex-related drug use could reduce the incidence of STI. Source

Two-hundred and forty-five heterosexual HIV-infected patients (58% women; median age 41 years) were screened for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during a routine visit at a large HIV outpatient clinic in the Netherlands. High-risk sexual behaviour was rare and STI prevalence was low: three Chlamydia trachomatis infections and one case of syphilis were diagnosed. These results suggest that, in the Netherlands, screening for STI during routine visits is currently not needed for asymptomatic heterosexual HIV-infected patients. Source

Van De Laar T.J.W.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | Matthews G.V.,University of New South Wales | Prins M.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | Prins M.,University of Amsterdam | Danta M.,University of New South Wales

Since 2000 outbreaks of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who denied injecting drug use have been reported from Europe, the United States, Canada and Australia. Given the burden of liver disease, in particular HCV, on the morbidity and mortality in HIV patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, the rapid and significant rise in the incidence of HCV in the HIV-infected MSM population in high-income countries is alarming. This relates to a significant change in the epidemiology of HCV that has occurred, with HCV emerging as a sexually transmitted infection within this population. Work to date suggests that this permucosal HCV transmission results from high-risk sexual and noninjecting drug use behaviours, reopening the discussion on the importance of sexual transmission. Given this occurs almost exclusively in HIV-infected MSM, HIV probably has a critical role mediated either through behavioural and/or biological factors. Finally, the management of acute HCV in HIV infection is complicated by concomitant HIV infection and combination antiretroviral therapy. This review will synthesize the most recent epidemiological, immunological and management issues that have emerged as a result of the epidemic of acute HCV among HIV-infected MSM. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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