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Bloemfontein, South Africa

Beugnet F.,MERIAL | Fourie J.,ClinVet International Pty Ltd. | Chalvet-Monfray K.,Applied Biomathematics, Inc.
Parasite | Year: 2012

Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200 ± 5) on Days-28 and -21. Each animal's sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100 ± 5) were placed in the plastic cup in each animal's sleeping box on Days-14, - 7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days - 1, 3, 1 0, 17, 2 4, 31, 3 8, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p< 0.05) between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 1 7, 24, 3 1, 38, 45, 51 and 60). The efficacy was never below 99.1 % in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2 %. Weekly shampooing in treatment group 3 was intentionally delayed after Day 42, to evaluate wether missing a weekly bath would affect the flea population. The Day 48 data indicate that forgetting or delaying a single weekly shampooing resulted in a clear increase in flea numbers and a significant decrease in efficacy from 68.2 % to 34.8 %. The fipronil(S)/methoprene treatment allowed a continuous control as demonstrated by the high efficacy against fleas, and also the number of flea-free dogs on seven of the nine weekly assessments, in spite of what was essentially a continuous flea challenge model. Source


Six R.H.,Veterinary Medicine Research and Development | Liebenberg J.,ClinVet International Pty Ltd. | Honsberger N.A.,Veterinary Medicine Research and Development | Mahabir S.P.,Veterinary Medicine Research and Development
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Fleas are the most common ectoparasite infesting dogs globally. The many possible sequellae of infestation include: direct discomfort; allergic reactions; and the transmission of pathogens. Rapid speed of kill is an important characteristic for a parasiticide in order to alleviate the direct deleterious effects of fleas, reduce the impact of allergic responses, and break the flea infestation cycle. In this study, the speed of kill of a novel orally administered isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs was evaluated and compared with afoxolaner (NexGard®) for 5 weeks after a single oral dose. Methods: Twenty-four dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with a single oral dose at label rate of either sarolaner (2 to 4 mg/kg) or afoxolaner (2.5 to 6.8 mg/kg) or placebo, based on pretreatment flea counts. Dogs were combed and live fleas counted at 8, 12 and 24 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Efficacy was determined at each time point relative to counts for placebo dogs. Results: There were no adverse reactions to treatment. A single oral dose of sarolaner provided ≥98.8 % efficacy (based on geometric means) within 8 h of treatment or subsequent weekly re-infestations of fleas to Day 35. By 12 h, fleas were virtually eradicated from all dogs, with only two fleas recovered from a single sarolaner-treated dog on Day 7; efficacy was 100 % at all other time points. Significantly greater numbers of live fleas were recovered from afoxolaner-treated dogs at 8 h on all days and at 12 h on Days 28 and 35 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In this controlled laboratory evaluation, sarolaner had a significantly faster speed of kill against fleas than afoxolaner. This was noticeably more evident towards the end of the treatment period. The rapid and consistent kill of fleas within 8 to 12 h after a single oral dose of sarolaner over 35 days indicates that this treatment will provide highly effective control of flea infestations, relief for dogs afflicted with flea allergy dermatitis, and should reduce the risk of flea-borne pathogen transmission. © 2016 Six et al. Source


Becskei C.,Veterinary Medicine Research and Development | Geurden T.,Veterinary Medicine Research and Development | Liebenberg J.,ClinVet International Pty Ltd. | Cuppens O.,Veterinary Medicine Research and Development | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the most widely distributed tick species infesting dogs worldwide, which may cause discomfort to the host and transmit diseases. Acaricides with a rapid and sustained speed of kill are thus important to prevent infestation and to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In this study, the speed of kill of a monthly administered SimparicaTM(sarolaner) treatment against induced infestations with R. Sanguineus on dogs was evaluated and compared with a single dose of Bravecto®(fluralaner) for 95 days after the initial treatment. Methods: Twenty four dogs were randomly allocated to treatment and were treated with either placebo or sarolaner (at 2 to 4 mg/kg) on Days 0, 30 and 60 or with fluralaner (at 25 to 56 mg/kg) once on Day 0. Tick counts were performed in situ 8 and 12 h and with removal of the ticks 24 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations on Days 14, 28, 44, 56, 74, 90 and 95. Acaricidal efficacy was determined at each time point relative to the placebo group. Results: Both products significantly reduced live ticks within 8 h after treatment against an existing infestation with R. Sanguineus, and killed all ticks on all dogs within 24 h. After re-infestation, sarolaner provided ≥98.5 % reduction within 24 h on all days except Days 74 and 95 (P < 0.0001), compared to fluralaner which provided ≥95.5 % reduction until Day 44. Geometric mean live tick counts for sarolaner were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.0415) at 24 h than those for fluralaner on all days, except on Days 0, 14 and 28 (P ≥ 0.0678). There were no treatment-related adverse reactions observed during the study. Conclusions: When dosed at monthly intervals for 3 consecutive months, SimparicaTM has a faster and more consistent speed of kill against R. Sanguineus than a single oral dose of Bravecto® for which efficacy decreased after Day 44. © 2016 Becskei et al. Source


Becskei C.,Veterinary Medicine Research and Development | Geurden T.,Veterinary Medicine Research and Development | Erasmus H.,ClinVet International Pty Ltd. | Cuppens O.,Veterinary Medicine Research and Development | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Ticks are common ectoparasites that infest dogs globally. Acaricides with rapid and sustained speed of kill are critical to control infestations and to reduce the risk of disease transmission. This study evaluated the speed of kill for 5 weeks after a single dose of orally administered Simparica™(sarolaner) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus on dogs, compared to Advantix®Spot-on solution for dogs (imidacloprid + permethrin). Methods: Twenty four dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with either a placebo tablet, a sarolaner tablet (at 2 to 4 mg/kg) or with Advantix® as per label instructions. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and tick counts were performed in situ at 8 and 12 hours and with removal of the ticks at 24 hours after treatment and subsequent re-infestations on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Acaricidal efficacy was determined at each time point relative to live tick counts from the placebo-treated dogs. Results: Based on arithmetic (geometric) mean tick counts, the efficacy of sarolaner was ≥75.6 % (89.6 %) within 8 hours of treatment and tick counts were significantly lower than placebo and imidacloprid + permethrin-treated dogs (P < 0.0001), while imidacloprid + permethrin had no significant reduction (P ≥ 0.3990) at 8 or 12 hours after treatment. Sarolaner killed all ticks on the dogs within 24 hours after treatment, while imidacloprid + permethrin efficacy was only 48.1 %. After weekly re-infestations sarolaner significantly reduced the tick counts versus placebo within 8 hours on Days 7, 14 and 35 (P ≤ 0.0239), and at 12 hours and 24 hours (P ≤ 0.0079) until Day 35.Sarolaner efficacy was ≥95.8 % within 24 hours for 35 days. Significantly more live ticks (P ≤ 0.0451) were recovered from imidacloprid + permethrin-treated dogs than from sarolaner-treated dogs at 24 hours after infestation on all days. There were no sarolaner-related adverse reactions during the study. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Simparica™ had a faster and more consistent speed of kill against D. reticulatus compared to Advantix®. The rapid and consistent efficacy within 24 hours for 5 weeks after a single oral dose of Simparica™ provides effective and reliable control of D. reticulatus and reduces the risk of transmission of tick-borne diseases. © 2016 Becskei et al. Source


Kuzner J.,Krka D.d. | Turk S.,Krka D.d. | Fourie J.J.,ClinVet International Pty Ltd. | Grace S.,Charles River Laboratories Preclinical Services Ireland Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2013

Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and the castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus) cause discomfort and health effects due to bites and ingestion of blood and they serve as vectors for several animal and human pathogens. Effectiveness of a novel 10 % w/v fipronil spot-on (Eliminall®/Exproline vet™, marketed by Pfizer Animal Health and registered and manufactured by Krka, d.d., Novo mesto) was confirmed against these parasites on experimentally infested cats. Two parallel, unicentre and masked controlled studies were conducted with European mixed breed and mixed sex cats. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatment groups based on either pre-treatment flea counts (study 1) or pre-treatment tick counts (study 2). In each of the study, eight animals served as control, while another eight animals were treated once topically with the unit label dose of 50 mg fipronil per cat (10.6-23.8 mg/kg). At each reinfestation, animals were infested with approximately 100 fleas or 60 ticks to achieve adequate infestation rates. Parasites were removed and counted on days 2, 9, 16, 23, 30 and 37, 48 h after the treatment or experimental infestation. Excellent effectiveness was demonstrated on day 2 (100 and 94 % efficacy against fleas and ticks, respectively) and lasted for up to 5 weeks (efficacy ≥96 %) against fleas and up to 4 weeks against ticks (efficacy ≥94 %). The product was well tolerated and no adverse reactions were observed. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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