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Marot J.C.,Cliniques Universitaires St Luc
Acta clinica Belgica

Tigecycline (formerly CAR-936, Tygacyl) is the first glycylcycline antibiotic available for clinical use. It has an expanded broad-spectrum antibiotic activity. Phase III studies have identified gastrointestinal side-effects, especially nausea and vomiting, as the most common adverse events. Few cases of acute pancreatitis (AP) have been described in the literature. We report two new cases of mild tigecycline-induced pancreatitis. Tigecycline was given for soft-tissue infection in both cases. Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and mostly abdominal pain occurred within 5 days after starting Tigecycline. Pancreatic enzymes elevation occurred five to six days after initiation of treatment, and resolved within a week after drug-discontinuation. Diagnosis of mild pancreatitis was confirmed after performing CT-Scan of the abdomen in both cases. We take this opportunity to review the literature about this potentially serious side-effect induced by tigecycline. Source

Vancraeynest D.,Catholic University of Louvain | Pasquet A.,Catholic University of Louvain | Roelants V.,Catholic University of Louvain | Gerber B.L.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Cardiovascular diseases are still the primary causes of mortality in the United States and in Western Europe. Arterial thrombosis is triggered by a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque and precipitates an acute vascular event, which is responsible for the high mortality rate. These rupture-prone plaques are called "vulnerable plaques." During the past decades, much effort has been put toward accurately detecting the presence of vulnerable plaques with different imaging techniques. In this review, we provide an overview of the currently available invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities used to detect vulnerable plaques. We will discuss the upcoming challenges in translating these techniques into clinical practice and in assigning them their exact place in the decision-making process. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Pirson Y.,Cliniques Universitaires St Luc
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease

Although asymptomatic in most patients, extrarenal manifestations of ADPKD may become more clinically relevant with the increasing life expectancy of affected patients. They mainly encompass cysts in other organs than the kidney (liver: 94%, seminal vesicle: 40%, pancreas: 9%, arachnoid membrane: 8%, and spinal meningeal, 2%) and connective tissue abnormalities (mitral valve prolapse: 25%, intracranial aneurysms: 8%, and abdominal hernia: 10%). Their recognition may spare the patient from other, useless investigations (eg, when an arachnoid cyst is incidentally found) or lead to the implementation of prophylactic or therapeutic measures (eg, screening, sometimes followed by the treatment of an asymptomatic intracranial aneurysm in at-risk patients, or, in the presence of a severe polycystic liver disease, avoidance from estrogens and treatment aimed to slow cyst growth). © 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Source

Veyckemans F.,Cliniques Universitaires St Luc
Paediatric Anaesthesia

The 'new' challenging pediatric patients are those who could be called 'the survivors' and neonates undergoing birth under materno-fetal circulation. Their anesthetic management is complex because their initial pathology was previously lethal: the physiologic, pharmacologic, and or technical aspect of their management is presently unknown or hypothetical. Some examples are described. Communication with the pediatrician in charge of the child is the key to safe and effective anesthetic care of these cases. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Leclercq S.,Catholic University of Louvain | De Saeger C.,Catholic University of Louvain | Delzenne N.,Catholic University of Louvain | De Timary P.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 2 more authors.
Biological Psychiatry

Background: Inflammation might play a role in the development of several psychiatric diseases. However, the origins of processes that mediate inflammation are unknown. We previously reported increased intestinal permeability, elevated blood lipopolysaccharide levels, and low-grade systemic inflammation associated with psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence in alcohol-dependent subjects. In this study, we tested inflammatory responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to gut-derived bacterial products during detoxification and the relationship to alcohol craving. Methods: In 63 actively drinking noncirrhotic alcohol-dependent subjects, testing was performed at the beginning (day 2) and end (day 18) of alcohol detoxification and compared with testing in 14 healthy subjects. Activation of various intracellular signaling pathways by gut-derived bacterial products was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and DNA binding assays (for transcription factors). Toll-like receptor activation was assessed by cell cultures. Results: In addition to lipopolysaccharides, we showed that peptidoglycans may also cross the gut barrier to reach the systemic circulation. Both activate their respective Toll-like receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chronic alcohol consumption inhibited the nuclear factor kappa B proinflammatory cytokine pathway but activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein 1 pathway, together with the inflammasome complex. This activity resulted in increased messenger RNA and plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and IL-18. Activated proinflammatory pathways, in particular, IL-8 and IL-1β, were positively correlated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-craving scores. Short-term alcohol withdrawal was associated with the recovery of lipopolysaccharidedependent receptors but not peptidoglycan-dependent receptors. Conclusions: Lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans from the gut microbiota stimulate specific inflammatory pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells that are correlated with alcohol craving. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Source

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