Roy C.,Clinique Veterinaire des Mazets
Productions Animales | Year: 2014
In France, veterinarians in practice, even though they all exercise the same profession, may display various and distinct kinds of jobs: vets in cities vs. vets in the countryside, taking care of livestock or pets etc. Moreover even in the rural area, there are striking differences of approach depending on the region or area of practice. This is particularly the case for mountainous areas which as a result, generates various constraints for the practice of medicine and surgery of animals that are described in this presentation. In addition, these zones show an intense desertification that consequently and dramatically impacts vet practices. In response to such a challenge, the vets have to adapt themselves and find the most appropriate ways to maintain local services to the farmers in as an efficient manner as for pets in towns. The recruitment of young veterinarians becomes critical for the survival of rural vet practices and thus for the animal health surveillance veterinary network as a whole but more particularly in mountainous areas given their specific sanitary risks. Farmers in such mountainous regions have become economically successful during recent decades similarly to what is noticed in plains. They too require great professionalism and efficiency from their vets both in terms of farming strategy and prevention and cure of diseases. In addition, the implication of the vet in such areas is often well beyond a simple contract and practically requires quite a personal investment.
Vaccine safety and efficacy evaluation of a recombinant Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) with deletion of the SH gene and subunit vaccines based on recombinant human RSV proteins: N-nanorings, P and M2-1, in calves with maternal antibodies
Blodorn K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Hagglund S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Fix J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Dubuquoy C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
The development of safe and effective vaccines against both bovine and human respiratory syncytial viruses (BRSV, HRSV) to be used in the presence of RSV-specific maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) remains a high priority in human and veterinary medicine. Herein, we present safety and efficacy results from a virulent BRSV challenge of calves with MDA, which were immunized with one of three vaccine candidates that allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA): an SH gene-deleted recombinant BRSV (DSHrBRSV), and two subunit (SU) formulations based on HRSV-P, -M2-1, and -N recombinant proteins displaying BRSV-F and -G epitopes, adjuvanted by either oil emulsion (Montanide ISA71VG, SUMont) or immunostimulating complex matrices (AbISCO-300, SUAbis). Whereas all control animals developed severe respiratory disease and shed high levels of virus following BRSV challenge, DSHrBRSV-immunized calves demonstrated almost complete clinical and virological protection five weeks after a single intranasal vaccination. Although mucosal vaccination with ΔSHrBRSV failed to induce a detectable immunological response, there was a rapid and strong anamnestic mucosal BRSV-specific IgA, virus neutralizing antibody and local T cell response following challenge with virulent BRSV. Calves immunized twice intramuscularly, three weeks apart with SUMont were also well protected two weeks after boost. The protection was not as pronounced as that in ΔSHrBRSV-immunized animals, but superior to those immunized twice subcutaneously three weeks apart with SUAbis. Antibody responses induced by the subunit vaccines were non-neutralizing and not directed against BRSV F or G proteins. When formulated as SUMont but not as SUAbis, the HRSV N, P and M2-1 proteins induced strong systemic cross-protective cell-mediated immune responses detectable already after priming. ΔSHrBRSV and SUMont are two promising DIVA-compatible vaccines, apparently inducing protection by different immune responses that were influenced by vaccine-composition, immunization route and regimen. © 2014 Blodörn et al.
Roy C.,Clinique Veterinaire des Mazets |
Roque J.-L.,Clinique Veterinaire des Mazets |
Francois P.-M.,Clinique Veterinaire des Mazets |
Ferrieres A.,Clinique Veterinaire des Mazets |
Raboisson D.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012
Udder-thigh dermatitis (UTD) is a common disease in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to define UTD incidence, its risk factors and the involved pathogens. Of 74 respondents, 72 (97%) reported having had the disease. On those farms the incidence was 5.3 cases per 100 cow years. The odds ratio (OR) of UTD in primiparous compared to multiparous cows was 23.4 (95% CI 17.3-33.8). Compared to tied stalls, the ORs of UTD were 0.65 (95% CI 0.45-0.92) and 0.43 (95% CI 0.24-0.71) for free stalls and straw yards, respectively. Udder oedema was reported in 98.3% of cows with UTD. The most common bacteria isolated from affected skin were Fusobacterium spp. (12/14 cases). This study suggests that UTD management should focus on local treatment, reducing udder oedema and increasing exercise. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.