Wicky G.,Clinique Romande de Readaptation suvacare |
Nicolo D.,Clinique Romande de Readaptation suvacare |
Vuadens P.,Clinique Romande de Readaptation suvacare
Brain Injury | Year: 2015
Background: Whenever oral treatment or botulinum toxin injections fail to control severe spasticity, a trial with intrathecal baclofen is recommended no earlier than 1 year after brain injury. When irreversible contractures are to be avoided, such a trial might be done earlier. Some have briefly reported cognitive modifications with this treatment. Methods: During the trial period, intrathecal baclofen is continuously infused by a portable external pump through an intrathecal catheter. The daily dose is adjusted according to the clinical response. If the expected response is obtained by reduction of spasticity, a programmable pump is then implanted. Throughout the procedure, close neuropsychological follow-up is pursued. Results: Two persons with extremely severe brain injury and spasticity received a programmable pump less than 10 months after trauma. Unexpectedly, one emerged from the minimally conscious state and the other from post-traumatic amnesia. Conclusions: Intrathecal baclofen should be considered within the first year after brain injury whenever spasticity does not respond to medication. ITB lessens the degree of spasticity which in turn facilitates care and, thus, has the potential to limit contractures. After severe brain injury, this treatment might trigger recovery from altered states of consciousness, improve cognition and facilitate rehabilitation. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved.
Konzelmann M.,Clinique romande de readaptation suvacare |
Deriaz O.,Institute Of Recherche En Readaptation Irr |
Luthi F.,Clinique romande de readaptation suvacare
BMC Neurology | Year: 2013
Background: The partial form of the complex regional pain syndrome of the hand type 1 (CRPS 1), involving only 1 to 3 fingers, is a rare condition first described in 1972. The aim of the study is to define more precisely the diagnosis workup and the prognosis of this clinical entity.Methods: Retrospective study of CRPS1 partial form observed during five years in a rehabilitation ward. Application of The Budapest criteria, evaluation of radiological exams, therapeutic results and vocational outcomes. Comparison with cases from literature review.Results: 132 patients were hospitalized with the diagnosis of CRPS type 1 of the hand. 16 partial forms were isolated: 11 men, 5 women with a mean age of 43 years. Among these patients, 14 (88%) met The Budapest criteria and the two remaining cases were diagnosed by using the three phase bone scintigraphy. Only moderate improvement was obtained in the majority of the patients. At the maximal time of follow-up (4 to 9 years), 50% of the patients hadn't returned to work. From the literature review, 19 cases were eligible for clinical comparisons. The main differences between our series and the literature were: more men involved, later diagnosis and worst prognosis in term of return to work.Conclusions: This is the largest series of consecutive partial form of CRPS. The Budapest criteria are sufficient for the diagnosis in 88% of cases. As in complete form of CRPS1 of the hand, three phase bone scintigraphy should only be used in doubtful cases in the first six months of the illness. Partial form of CRPS1 of the hand is rare and its prevalence remains unknown. Long term prognosis (4 to 9 years) is poor in our series, 50% of patients didn't returned to work. © 2013 konzelmann et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Perdikis S.,Center for Neuroprosthetics |
Leeb R.,Center for Neuroprosthetics |
Williamson J.,University of Glasgow |
Ramsay A.,University of Glasgow |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neural Engineering | Year: 2014
Objective. While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for communication have reached considerable technical maturity, there is still a great need for state-of-the-art evaluation by the end-users outside laboratory environments. To achieve this primary objective, it is necessary to augment a BCI with a series of components that allow end-users to type text effectively. Approach. This work presents the clinical evaluation of a motor imagery (MI) BCI text-speller, called BrainTree, by six severely disabled end-users and ten able-bodied users. Additionally, we define a generic model of code-based BCI applications, which serves as an analytical tool for evaluation and design. Main results. We show that all users achieved remarkable usability and efficiency outcomes in spelling. Furthermore, our model-based analysis highlights the added value of human-computer interaction techniques and hybrid BCI error-handling mechanisms, and reveals the effects of BCI performances on usability and efficiency in code-based applications. Significance. This study demonstrates the usability potential of code-based MI spellers, with BrainTree being the first to be evaluated by a substantial number of end-users, establishing them as a viable, competitive alternative to other popular BCI spellers. Another major outcome of our model-based analysis is the derivation of a 80% minimum command accuracy requirement for successful code-based application control, revising upwards previous estimates attempted in the literature. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Manual therapy followed by specific active exercises versus a placebo followed by specific active exercises on the improvement of functional disability in patients with chronic non specific low back pain: A randomized controlled trial
Balthazard P.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland |
De Goumoens P.,University of Lausanne |
Rivier G.,Clinique Romande de Readaptation SUVACare |
Demeulenaere P.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland |
And 3 more authors.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2012
Background: Recent clinical recommendations still propose active exercises (AE) for CNSLBP. However, acceptance of exercises by patients may be limited by pain-related manifestations. Current evidences suggest that manual therapy (MT) induces an immediate analgesic effect through neurophysiologic mechanisms at peripheral, spinal and cortical levels. The aim of this pilot study was first, to assess whether MT has an immediate analgesic effect, and second, to compare the lasting effect on functional disability of MT plus AE to sham therapy (ST) plus AE. Methods. Forty-two CNSLBP patients without co-morbidities, randomly distributed into 2 treatment groups, received either spinal manipulation/ mobilization (first intervention) plus AE (MT group; n = 22), or detuned ultrasound (first intervention) plus AE (ST group; n = 20). Eight therapeutic sessions were delivered over 4 to 8weeks. Immediate analgesic effect was obtained by measuring pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale) before and immediately after the first intervention of each therapeutic session. Pain intensity, disability (Oswestry Disability Index), fear-avoidance beliefs (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire), erector spinae and abdominal muscles endurance (Sorensen and Shirado tests) were assessed before treatment, after the 8th therapeutic session, and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results: Thirty-seven subjects completed the study. MT intervention induced a better immediate analgesic effect that was independent from the therapeutic session (VAS mean difference between interventions: -0.8; 95% CI: -1.2 to -0.3). Independently from time after treatment, MT + AE induced lower disability (ODI mean group difference: -7.1; 95% CI: -12.8 to -1.5) and a trend to lower pain (VAS mean group difference: -1.2; 95% CI: -2.4 to -0.30). Six months after treatment, Shirado test was better for the ST group (Shirado mean group difference: -61.6; 95% CI: -117.5 to -5.7). Insufficient evidence for group differences was found in remaining outcomes. Conclusions: This study confirmed the immediate analgesic effect of MT over ST. Followed by specific active exercises, it reduces significantly functional disability and tends to induce a larger decrease in pain intensity, compared to a control group. These results confirm the clinical relevance of MT as an appropriate treatment for CNSLBP. Its neurophysiologic mechanisms at cortical level should be investigated more thoroughly. Trial registration. Trial registration number: NCT01496144. © 2012 althazard et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Leeb R.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Perdikis S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Tonin L.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Biasiucci A.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
And 6 more authors.
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine | Year: 2013
Objectives: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are no longer only used by healthy participants under controlled conditions in laboratory environments, but also by patients and end-users, controlling applications in their homes or clinics, without the BCI experts around. But are the technology and the field mature enough for this? Especially the successful operation of applications - like text entry systems or assistive mobility devices such as tele-presence robots - requires a good level of BCI control. How much training is needed to achieve such a level? Is it possible to train naïve end-users in 10 days to successfully control such applications? Materials and methods: In this work, we report our experiences of training 24 motor-disabled participants at rehabilitation clinics or at the end-users' homes, without BCI experts present. We also share the lessons that we have learned through transferring BCI technologies from the lab to the user's home or clinics. Results: The most important outcome is that 50% of the participants achieved good BCI performance and could successfully control the applications (tele-presence robot and text-entry system). In the case of the tele-presence robot the participants achieved an average performance ratio of 0.87 (max. 0.97) and for the text entry application a mean of 0.93 (max. 1.0). The lessons learned and the gathered user feedback range from pure BCI problems (technical and handling), to common communication issues among the different people involved, and issues encountered while controlling the applications. Conclusion: The points raised in this paper are very widely applicable and we anticipate that they might be faced similarly by other groups, if they move on to bringing the BCI technology to the end-user, to home environments and towards application prototype control. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Luthi F.,Clinique Romande de readaptation suvacare |
Eggel Y.,Clinique Romande de readaptation suvacare |
Theumann N.,Service de radiodiagnostic et radiologie interventionnelle
Joint Bone Spine | Year: 2012
Retinoids are effective and widely prescribed in the treatment of severe acne. However their use can be associated with numerous side effects. Some rare cases of premature epiphyseal closure were reported. We present the case of a sixteen-year-old soccer player referred for progressive anterior pain in both knees, evoking a patellar problem. Careful pharmacological questioning revealed use of isotretinoin for several months. MRI findings showed an irregularity of the growth plate and an important metaphyso-epiphyseal oedema, more noticeable in the left knee. Retinoid-induced premature epiphyseal closure was diagnosed. The treatment was stopped, with a resolution of pain within two months. After recovery a persisting small sequelar thumbprint-like growth plate lesion was observed on the control MRI. Retinoids induce an invasion of the growth plate by osteoclasts and a decrease in proteoglycans synthesis. It seems that the knee is the most affected joint. This complication being rare, a radiological follow-up of the young patients treated by retinoids is not proposed. © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie.
Reynard F.,Clinique romande de readaptation SUVACare |
Terrier P.,Clinique romande de readaptation SUVACare |
Terrier P.,Institute for Research in Rehabilitation
Experimental Brain Research | Year: 2015
While vision obviously plays an essential role in orienting and obstacle avoidance, its role in the regulation of dynamic balance is not yet fully understood. The objective of this study was to assess dynamic stability while blindfolded, under optimal conditions that minimized the fear of falling. The hypothesis was that visual deprivation could be compensated for by using other sensory strategies to stabilize gait. One hundred healthy adults (aged 20–69 years) participated in the study. They were previously accustomed to blindfolded treadmill walking wearing a safety harness. Their preferred walking speeds (PWS) were assessed with eyes open (PWSEO) and with eyes closed (blindfolded, PWSEC). Three five-minute tests were performed: (A) normal walking at PWSEO, (B) blindfolded walking at PWSEC, and (C) normal walking at PWSEC. Trunk acceleration was measured with a lightweight inertial sensor. Dynamic stability was assessed by using (1) acceleration root mean square (RMS), which estimates the variability of the signal, and hence, the smoothness of the trunk movement and (2) local dynamic stability (LDS), which reflects the efficiency of the motor control to stabilize the trunk. Although walking at PWSEC with eyes open (comparing conditions A and C) had a slight impact on gait stability (relative difference: RMS +4 %, LDS −5 %), no destabilizing effect of visual deprivation (B vs. C, RMS −4 %, LDS −1 %) was observed. Therefore, it is concluded that when reassuring conditions are offered to individuals while walking, they are able to adopt alternative sensory strategies to control dynamic equilibrium without the help of vision. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Reynard F.,Clinique romande de readaptation SUVACare |
Terrier P.,Institute for Research in Rehabilitation
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2014
Repetitive falls degrade the quality of life of elderly people and of patients suffering of various neurological disorders. In order to prevent falls while walking, one should rely on relevant early indicators of impaired dynamic balance. The local dynamic stability (LDS) represents the sensitivity of gait to small perturbations: divergence exponents (maximal Lyapunov exponents) assess how fast a dynamical system diverges from neighbor points. Although numerous findings attest the validity of LDS as a fall risk index, reliability results are still sparse. The present study explores the intrasession and intersession repeatability of gait LDS using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Ninety-five healthy individuals performed 5min treadmill walking in two sessions separated by 9 days. Trunk acceleration was measured with a 3D accelerometer. Three time scales were used to estimate LDS: over 4-10 strides (λ4-10), over one stride (λ1) and over one step (λ0.5). The intrasession repeatability was assessed from three repetitions of either 35 strides or 70 strides taken within the 5min tests. The intersession repeatability compared the two sessions, which totalized 210 strides. The intrasession ICCs (70-strides estimates/35-strides estimates) were 0.52/0.18 for λ4-10 and 0.84/0.77 for λ1 and λ0.5. The intersession ICCs were around 0.60. The SEM results revealed that λ0.5 measured in medio-lateral direction exhibited the best reliability, sufficient to detect moderate changes at individual level (20%). However, due to the low intersession repeatability, one should average several measurements taken on different days in order to better approximate the true LDS. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Could local dynamic stability serve as an early predictor of falls in patients with moderate neurological gait disorders? A reliability and comparison study in healthy individuals and in patients with paresis of the lower extremities
Reynard F.,Clinique Romande de Readaptation SUVACare |
Vuadens P.,Clinique Romande de Readaptation SUVACare |
Deriaz O.,Clinique Romande de Readaptation SUVACare |
Deriaz O.,Institute for Research in Rehabilitation |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Falls while walking are frequent in patients with muscular dysfunction resulting from neurological disorders. Falls induce injuries that may lead to deconditioning and disabilities, which further increase the risk of falling. Therefore, an early gait stability index would be useful to evaluate patients in order to prevent the occurrence of future falls. Derived from chaos theory, local dynamic stability (LDS), defined by the maximal Lyapunov exponent, assesses the sensitivity of a dynamic system to small perturbations. LDS has already been used for fall risk prediction in elderly people. The aim of the present study was to provide information to facilitate future researches regarding gait stability in patients with neurological gait disorders. The main objectives were 1) to evaluate the intra-session repeatability of LDS in patients and 2) to assess the discriminative power of LDS to differentiate between healthy individuals and neurological patients. Eighty-three patients with mild to moderate neurological disorders associated with paresis of the lower extremities and 40 healthy controls participated in the study. The participants performed 2630 s walking wearing a 3D accelerometer attached to the lower back, from which 2x35 steps were extracted. LDS was defined as the average exponential rate of divergence among trajectories in a reconstructed state-space that reflected the gait dynamics. LDS assessed along the medio-lateral axis offered the highest repeatability and discriminative power. Intra-session repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient between the two repetitions) in the patients was 0.89 and the smallest detectable difference was 16%. LDS was substantially lower in the patients than in the controls (33% relative difference, standardized effect size 2.3). LDS measured in short overground walking tests seems sufficiently reliable. LDS exhibits good discriminative power to differentiate fall-prone individuals and opens up the possibility of future clinical applications for better prediction of fall risk in neurological patients. © 2014 Reynard et al.
Terrier P.,Institute for Research in Rehabilitation |
Reynard F.,Clinique romande de readaptation SUVACare
Gait and Posture | Year: 2015
Falls during walking are a major health issue in the elderly population. Older individuals are usually more cautious, walk more slowly, take shorter steps, and exhibit increased step-to-step variability. They often have impaired dynamic balance, which explains their increased falling risk. Those locomotor characteristics might be the result of the neurological/musculoskeletal degenerative processes typical of advanced age or of a decline that began earlier in life. In order to help determine between the two possibilities, we analyzed the relationship between age and gait features among 100 individuals aged 20-69. Trunk acceleration was measured during a 5-min treadmill session using a 3D accelerometer. The following dependent variables were assessed: preferred walking speed, walk ratio (step length normalized by step frequency), gait instability (local dynamic stability, Lyapunov exponent method), and acceleration variability (root mean square [RMS]). Using age as a predictor, linear regressions were performed for each dependent variable. The results indicated that walking speed, walk ratio and trunk acceleration variability were not dependent on age (R2<2%). However, there was a significant quadratic association between age and gait instability in the mediolateral direction (R2=15%). We concluded that most of the typical gait features of older age do not result from a slow evolution over the life course. On the other hand, gait instability likely begins to increase at an accelerated rate as early as age 40-50. This finding supports the premise that local dynamic stability is likely a relevant early indicator of falling risk. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.