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Saint-André-lez-Lille, France

Fergelot P.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center | Fergelot P.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Coupry I.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Rooryck C.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center | And 16 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Genetics

Periventricular nodular heterotopia, the most common form of cortical malformation in adulthood, is characterized by nodules of neurons ectopically placed along the lateral ventricles. Classically, ectopic nodules are bilateral and symmetric defining bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH). BPNH can lead to epilepsy and intellectual disability of variable severity. The X-linked dominant form of BPNH, related to mutations in . FLNA encoding filamin A, is the major cause of BPNH, causing prenatal and neonatal lethality in males that explain the excess of affected women. However, few living males have been described with this condition. In addition, mutations in . FLNA have been also exceptionally associated with unilateral nodular heterotopia. We describe here three new patients, all carrying a novel missense mutation in . FLNA. Two of the patients were adult males with BPNH; both had normal cognitive development and one did not manifest any seizure until he died at age 57. The last patient was a female adult with epilepsy and focal nodules essentially located along the right ventricle. We compare the clinical and imaging data of our patients with those of previously described similar cases. The type and location of . FLNA mutations leading to such atypical presentations are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Baujat G.,University of Paris Descartes | Huber C.,University of Paris Descartes | El Hokayem J.,University of Paris Descartes | Caumes R.,University of Paris Descartes | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics

Background: Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia (ATD) belongs to the short rib polydactyly group and is characterized by a narrow thorax, short long bones and trident acetabular roof. Other reported features include polydactyly, renal, liver and retinal involvement. To date, mutations in IFT80, DYNC2H1, TTC21B and WDR19 have been reported in ATD. The clinical and molecular heterogeneity leads to difficulties in the evaluation of the long-term prognosis. Methods: We investigated 53 ATD cases (23 living cases and 30 fetuses) from 39 families. They benefited from a combined approach of deep phenotyping and IFT80 and DYNC2H1 molecular screening. Results: Among the 23 postnatal cases, pulmonary insufficiency was noted in 60% of cases, with tracheotomy requirement in five cases. Renal and liver diseases occurred respectively in 17% and 22% of cases, whereas retinal alteration was present in 50% of cases aged more than 5 years. We identified DYNC2H1 mutations in 23 families (59%) and IFT80 mutations in two families (5%). However, in six families, only one heterozygote mutation in either IFT80 or DYNC2H1 was identified. Finally, the two genes were excluded in 14 families (36%). Conclusions: We conclude that DYNC2H1 is a major gene responsible for ATD, while IFT80 is rarely involved. The presence of only one mutation in six families and the exclusion of the two genes in 14 families support the involvement of other causal cilia genes. The long-term follow up emphasizes that the pulmonary prognosis is probably less pejorative and retinal involvement more frequent than previously thought. Source

Asadollahi R.,University of Zurich | Oneda B.,University of Zurich | Joset p.,University of Zurich | Azzarello-Burri S.,University of Zurich | And 21 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics

Background: Despite abundant evidence for pathogenicity of large copy number variants (CNVs) in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), the individual significance of genome-wide rare CNVs <500 kb has not been well elucidated in a clinical context. Methods: By high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, we investigated the clinical significance of all rare non-polymorphic exonic CNVs sizing 1-500 kb in a cohort of 714 patients with undiagnosed NDDs. Results: We detected 96 rare CNVs <500 kb affecting coding regions, of which 58 (60.4%) were confirmed. 6 of 14 confirmed de novo, one of two homozygous and four heterozygous inherited CNVs affected the known microdeletion regions 17q21.31, 16p11.2 and 2p21 or OMIM morbid genes (CASK, CREBBP, PAFAH1B1, SATB2; AUTS2, NRXN3, GRM8). Two further de novo CNVs affecting single genes (MED13L, CTNND2) were instrumental in delineating novel recurrent conditions. For the first time, we here report exonic deletions of CTNND2 causing low normal IQ with learning difficulties with or without autism spectrum disorder. Additionally, we discovered a homozygous out-of-frame deletion of ACOT7 associated with features comparable to the published mouse model. In total, 24.1% of the confirmed small CNVs were categorised as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (median size 130 kb), 17.2% as likely benign, 3.4% represented incidental findings and 55.2% remained unclear. Conclusions: These results verify the diagnostic relevance of genome-wide rare CNVs <500 kb, which were found pathogenic in ~2% (14/714) of cases (1.1% de novo, 0.3% homozygous, 0.6% inherited) and highlight their inherent potential for discovery of new conditions. Source

Vincent M.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Vincent M.,Montpellier University | Genevieve D.,Montpellier University | Ostertag A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 53 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine

Purpose:Treacher Collins/Franceschetti syndrome (TCS; OMIM 154500) is a disorder of craniofacial development belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses. TCS is classically characterized by bilateral mandibular and malar hypoplasia, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, and microtia. To date, three genes have been identified in TCS:,TCOF1, POLR1D, and POLR1C.Methods:We report a clinical and extensive molecular study, including TCOF1, POLR1D, POLR1C, and EFTUD2 genes, in a series of 146 patients with TCS. Phenotype-genotype correlations were investigated for 19 clinical features, between TCOF1 and POLR1D, and the type of mutation or its localization in the TCOF1 gene.Results:We identified 92/146 patients (63%) with a molecular anomaly within TCOF1, 9/146 (6%) within POLR1D, and none within POLR1C. Among the atypical negative patients (with intellectual disability and/or microcephaly), we identified four patients carrying a mutation in EFTUD2 and two patients with 5q32 deletion encompassing TCOF1 and CAMK2A in particular. Congenital cardiac defects occurred more frequently among patients with TCOF1 mutation (7/92, 8%) than reported in the literature.Conclusion:Even though TCOF1 and POLR1D were associated with extreme clinical variability, we found no phenotype-genotype correlation. In cases with a typical phenotype of TCS, 6/146 (4%) remained with an unidentified molecular defect. © 2016 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Source

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