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Pasternak A.O.,Laboratory of Experimental Virology | Pasternak A.O.,Center for Infection and Immunity | De Bruin M.,Wageningen University | Jurriaans S.,Laboratory of Clinical Virology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background. Modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are widely assumed to forgive modest nonadherence, because virological suppression in plasma is common at adherence levels of >70. Yet, it is unknown whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication is completely suppressed at these levels of adherence. Methods. We longitudinally quantified levels of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 40 patients (median duration of successful ART before study initiation, 46 months), whose 1-week adherence to therapy prior to the sampling moments was measured electronically. Results. Patients were constantly 100 adherent (the optimal-adherence group), demonstrated improving adherence over time (the improving-adherence group), or neither of the above (the poor-adherence group). Adherence never decreased to <70 in any patient, and no rebound in plasma virological levels was observed. Nevertheless, poor adherence but not optimal or improving adherence caused a significant longitudinal increase in cell-associated HIV RNA levels (P =. 006). Time-weighted changes and regression slopes of viral RNA load for the poor-adherence group were significantly higher than those for the optimal-adherence group (P <. 01). Conclusions. Because ART only blocks infection of new cells but not viral RNA transcription in cells infected before therapy initiation, the observed effects strongly suggest that modest nonadherence can cause new cycles of HIV-1 replication that are undetectable by commercial plasma viral load assays. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Wildenbeest J.G.,Academic Medical Center | Wildenbeest J.G.,Laboratory of Clinical Virology | Benschop K.S.M.,Laboratory of Clinical Virology | Benschop K.S.M.,National Health Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2016

After symptomatic human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in infants, the duration of (mostly asymptomatic) shedding in feces was 2-24 weeks (median 58 days). HPeV cycle threshold value could neither differentiate between symptomatic disease and asymptomatic shedding nor between severe and mild disease as high cycle threshold values (indicating low viral loads) were observed in HPeV3-infected children with severe disease. © Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wildenbeest J.G.,Academic Medical Center | Van Den Broek P.J.,Leiden University | Benschop K.S.M.,Laboratory of Clinical Virology | Koen G.,Laboratory of Clinical Virology | And 4 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2012

Background: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) can cause severe infections, especially in patients with a deficient humoral immune response, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia. In this patient group, chronic enteroviral meningitis (CEMA) is feared because of extensive morbidity and high fatality rate. Treatment options consist of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), with various outcomes. Pleconaril is an antiviral agent with in vitro activity against HEVs that has been used in the treatment of HEV infections. Methods: The efficacy of pleconaril and IVIG against HEV isolated from the patients was assessed in vitro in two patients with CEMA. Results: Echovirus 11 was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of case 1. Treatment with high-dose IVIG and pleconaril did not provide any clinical improvement and HEV PCR in CSF remained positive. Case 2 (echovirus 13 positive in CSF) was also treated with IVIG and pleconaril. The patient recovered completely and HEV PCR in CSF became negative. Recent IVIG batches contained low titres of neutralizing antibodies against the patient strains. Echovirus 11 (case 1) was resistant to pleconaril in vitro, whereas echovirus 13 (case 2) was susceptible, in accordance with virological response after treatment and subsequent clinical results. Conclusions: This is the first report that evaluates efficacy of antiviral treatment in CEMA patients in relation to in vitro susceptibility of clinical virus isolates. Since pleconaril is no longer available for compassionate use we strongly propagate that new drugs should be developed against these potential life threatening HEV infections. ©2012 International Medical Press.

Rajhi M.,Pasteur Institute | Rajhi M.,Laboratory of Clinical Virology | Rajhi M.,University of Carthage | Ghedira K.,Pasteur Institute | And 18 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2) has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869-1902) before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867-1931). Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization. © 2016 Rajhi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are redited.

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