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Mydin A.R.,Kuala Lumpur Hospital | Dunne M.T.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | Finn M.A.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | Armstrong J.G.,St Lukes Hospital
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: To assess the survival benefit of early vs late salvage hormonal therapy (HT), we performed a secondary analysis on patients who developed recurrence from Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01, a randomized trial comparing 4 vs 8 months neoadjuvant HT plus radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate- and high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 patients from the trial who recurred were analyzed at a median follow-up of 8.5 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of salvage HT: 57 patients had prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 1, early), 21 patients had PSA >10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 2, late), and 24 patients had distant metastases (group 3, late). The endpoint analyzed was overall survival (OS) calculated from 2 different time points: date of enrolment in the trial (OS1) and date of initiation of salvage HT (OS2). Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression model. Results: The OS1 differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS1 at 10 years was 78% in group 1, 42% in group 2, and 29% in group 3. The OS2 also differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS2 at 6 years was 70% in group 1, 47% in group 2, and 22% in group 3. Group 1 had the longest median time from end of RT to biochemical failure compared with groups 2 and 3 (3.3, 0.9, and 1.7 years, respectively; P<.0005). Group 1 also had the longest median PSA doubling time compared with groups 2 and 3 (9.9, 3.6, and 2.4 months, respectively; P<.0005). On multivariate analysis, timing of salvage HT, time from end of RT to biochemical failure, and PSA nadir on salvage HT were significant predictors of survival. Conclusion: Early salvage HT based on PSA ≤10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases improved survival in patients with prostate cancer after failure of initial treatment with neoadjuvant HT plus RT. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Mullaney L.M.,Trinity College Dublin | O'Shea E.,A+ Network | Dunne M.T.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | Finn M.A.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | And 5 more authors.
Practical Radiation Oncology | Year: 2014

Purpose: Organ motion is a contributory factor to the variation in location of the prostate and organs at risk during a course of fractionated prostate radiation therapy (RT). A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed with the primary endpoint to provide evidence-based bladder-filling instructions to achieve a consistent bladder volume (BV) and thus reduce the bladder-related organ motion. The secondary endpoints were to assess the incidence of acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for patients and patients' satisfaction with the bladder-filling instructions. Methods and materials: One hundred ten patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 bladder-filling protocols; 540 mL (3 cups) of water or 1080 mL (6 cups) of water, in a single institution trial. A portable ultrasound device, BladderScan BVI 6400 (Verathon Inc, Bothell, WA), measured BVs at treatment planning computed tomography (TPCT) scan and 3 times per week during RT. Maximum bladder dose and BV receiving ≥ 50, 60, and 70 Gy were recorded. Acute and late GU and GI toxicity were evaluated, as were patients' comfort, perception of urinary symptoms, and quality of life (QoL). Results: There was significantly less BV variation in the 540 mL arm when compared with 1080 mL (median: 76 mL vs 105 mL, P = 003). Larger BVs on initial TPCT correlated with larger BV variations during RT (P < 0005). There were no statistically significant associations between arm and GU/GI toxicity, dose median comfort scores, or median QoL scores. Conclusions: The 540 mL bladder-filling arm resulted in reproducible BVs throughout a course of RT, without any deterioration in QoL or increase in toxicities for prostate patients. © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Source

Barry A.S.,St Lukes Hospital | Dunne M.T.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | Lyons C.A.,Queens University of Belfast | Finn M.A.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | And 5 more authors.
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2014

Background. To assess the temporal patterns of late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) radiotherapy toxicity and resolution rates in a randomised controlled trial (All-Ireland Cooperative Oncology Research Group 97-01) assessing duration of neo-adjuvant (NA) hormone therapy for localised prostate cancer.Material and methods. Node negative patients with > 1 of: PSA > 20 ng/mL, Gleason score ≥ 7, and stage T3 or more, were included. Follow-up, including toxicity assessment, was three-monthly in the early stages and yearly thereafter.Results. Median follow-up from the end of RT was 6.8 years. In the interval between 90 days following the end of RT and the last toxicity assessment, GI and GU toxicity (any grade) was found in 50% and 51% of 240 and 241 patients, respectively. For those who did develop toxicity, the median time from end of RT until the first development of any grade GI or GU toxicity was 1.2 years and 1.6 years, respectively, whilst median time to final resolution was 1.6 years and 2.2 years, respectively. Grade 2 (G2) or greater GI and GU toxicity occurred in 29 (12.1%) and 40 (16.6%) patients, respectively. The proportion with unresolved G2 + GI and GU toxicity was 89% and 79%, respectively, in year 1, 69% and 65% in year 2, 59% and 52% in year 3 and 27% and 32% in year 5.Conclusion. Long-term toxicities continue to occur many years after NA hormone therapy and RT. The rate of occurrence does not appear to reduce within the time frame during which our patients were followed. The percentage of patients suffering from G2 + toxicity at any time is however low. Resolution of these toxicities continues for the duration of the follow-up. © 2014 Informa Healthcare. Source

Daly P.E.,St Lukes Hospital | Dunne M.T.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | O'Shea C.M.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | Finn M.A.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | Armstrong J.G.,St Lukes Hospital
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2012

Background and purpose: Erectile dysfunction is a common consequence of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The addition of neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) has an indeterminate additive effect. We examined the long-term effect on erectile function (EF) of two durations (4 months: arm 1 and 8 months: arm 2) of NAD prior to radiation (RT) for patients with localised prostate cancer from the Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group (ICORG 97-01) 4- versus 8-month trial. In this study we aimed to (1) analyse the overall effect on EF of NAD in an EBRT population, (2) compare the probability of retained EF over time in an EBRT population treated with either 4 or 8 months of NAD and (3) identify any variables such as risk group and age which may have an additive detrimental effect. This analysis provides unique long term follow up data. Materials and methods: From 1997 to 2001, 276 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were randomised to 4 or 8 months of NAD before RT. EF data were recorded at baseline and at each follow-up visit by physician directed questions, using a 4-point grading system. Results: Two hundred and thirty patients were included in the analysis of EF and were followed for a median of 80 months. One hundred and forty-one patients had EF at baseline. Neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation in addition to radiation therapy caused a significant reduction in EF. The most significant reduction in EF happens within the first year. The median time to grade 3-4 EF toxicity was 14.6 months, 17.6 months in arm 1 and 13.7 in arm 2. Freedom from late EF toxicity did not differ significantly between arms, overall or at 5 years (n = 141). The cumulative probability of EF preservation at 5 years was 28% (22-34) in arm 1 and 24% (19-30) in arm 2. Age was a significant predictor of post-treatment EF. Conclusions: The first year post ADT and EBRT poses the greatest risk to sexual function and a continued decline may be expected. However, 26% of men can expect to retain sexual function at 5 years. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Armstrong J.G.,St Lukes Hospital | Gillham C.M.,St Lukes Hospital | Dunne M.T.,Clinical Trials Resource Unit | Fitzpatrick D.A.,St Lukes Hospital | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2011

Purpose: To examine the long-term outcomes of a randomized trial comparing short (4 months; Arm 1) and long (8 months; Arm 2) neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1997 and 2001, 276 patients were enrolled and the data from 261 were analyzed. The stratification risk factors were prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL, Gleason score ≥7, and Stage T3 or more. The intermediate-risk stratum had one factor and the high-risk stratum had two or more. Staging was done from the bone scan and computed tomography findings. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure-free survival. Results: The median follow-up was 102 months. The overall survival, biochemical failure-free survival. and prostate cancer-specific survival did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms, overall or at 5 years. The cumulative probability of overall survival at 5 years was 90% (range, 87-92%) in Arm 1 and 83% (range, 80-86%) in Arm 2. The biochemical failure-free survival rate at 5 years was 66% (range, 62-71%) in Arm 1 and 63% (range, 58-67%) in Arm 2. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was found in biochemical failure-free survival between 4 months and 8 months of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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