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Brown C.C.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust | Sebire N.J.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust | Sebire N.J.,University College London | Wittenhagen P.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust | And 3 more authors.
Transplant International | Year: 2014

Intimal vascular lesions are considered features of acute T-cell-mediated rejection yet can occur in the absence of tubulointerstitial inflammation, termed isolated 'v' lesions. The clinical significance of these lesions is unclear. The diagnosis requires a biopsy with the presence of arteries. The frequency of adequate biopsies was analysed in 89 renal transplant biopsies from 57 paediatric renal allograft recipients, and the incidence of isolated endarteritis was determined. 60 (67%) biopsies contained an artery and of these, isolated 'v' lesions occurred in 6 (10%). 5 (83%) biopsies with isolated 'v' lesions were associated with positive DSA, suggesting that these lesions may represent acute antibody-mediated rejection. Patients with vessel-negative biopsies had an increased decline in eGFR (median -20.5, IQR -24.4 to 1.2 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs. -9.6, IQR -78.7 to -6.8 ml/min/1.73 m2; P = 0.01). Patients with vessel-negative biopsies were more likely to have repeat biopsy for ongoing allograft dysfunction, (25.0% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.01). The data suggest that isolated 'v' lesions are more common than previously thought. A significant proportion of biopsies classified as 'normal' or 'borderline change' in the absence of a large vessel may represent undiagnosed acute rejection. This may result in suboptimal therapy with possible adverse effects on renal outcome. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Ermini L.,Northumbria University | Weale M.E.,Kings College London | Brown K.M.,Kings College London | Mesa I.R.,Kings College London | And 5 more authors.
Immunobiology | Year: 2016

The importance of the innate immune system, including complement, in causing transplant injury and augmenting adaptive immune responses is increasingly recognized. Therefore variability in graft outcome may in part be due to genetic polymorphism in genes encoding proteins of the immune system. This study assessed the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in complement genes and outcome after transplantation. Analysis was performed on two patient cohorts of 650 and 520 transplant recipients. 505 tagged SNPs in 47 genes were typed in both donor and recipient. The relationships between SNPs and graft survival, serum creatinine, delayed graft function and acute rejection were analyzed. One recipient SNP in the gene encoding mannose binding lectin was associated with graft outcome after correction for analysis of multiple SNPs (p = 6.41 × 10-5). When further correction was applied to account for analysis of the effect of SNPs in both donor and recipient this lost significance. Despite association p values of <0.001 no SNP was significantly associated with clinical phenotypes after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, the variability seen in transplant outcome in this patient cohort cannot be explained by variation in complement genes. If causal genetic effects exist in these genes, they are too small to be detected by this study. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.

Murtuza B.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children | Fenton M.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children | Burch M.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children | Gupta A.,Clinical Transplantation Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: Recent reports suggest worse outcomes in pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for congenital heart disease (CHD) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). We examined early outcomes in these diverse groups of patients in comparison with patients with dilatated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods: From 2000 to 2011, 209 patients were included: 50 with CHD, 23 with RCM, and 136 with DCM. Early survival was studied, as was the occurrence of acute rejection, donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and nondonor-specific antibodies (NSDAs), incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PHT), right ventricular failure (RVF), and the need for mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Results: The incidence of preoperative PHT was greatest in the RCM group (χ2 p = 0.0006); the requirement for mechanical support before OHT was greatest in patients with DCM. Thirty-day survival was 92.0%, 97.1%, and 100% for patients with CHD, DCM, and RCM respectively. The incidence of RVF was highest for patients with RCM (43.5%; versus CHD, 26.0%; versus DCM, 14.7%). One-year survival estimates for patients with CHD, DCM, and RCM were 92.0%, 97.8%, and 82.6%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.165). Multivariable analysis revealed 4 significant risk factors for mortality: age, incidence of acute rejection, preoperative PHT, and the presence of NDSAs. The occurrence of DSAs was similar, although there was a significantly higher incidence of NDSAs in the CHD and RCM groups (36.0% and 30.4%, respectively, versus 14.0% in the DCM group; χ2 p = 0.0024). Conclusions: Equivalent outcomes are achievable in pediatric OHT despite marked heterogeneity in anatomic and physiologic complexity in recipients. Physiologic factors such as PHT are likely to be more important than anatomic complexities in determining survival. The potential relevance of NDSAs warrants further investigation. © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

Jacquet L.,Kings College | Stephenson E.,Kings College | Collins R.,Clinical Transplantation Laboratory | Patel H.,Guys And St Thomas Center For Preimplantation | And 7 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Here, we describe a pre-derivation embryo haplotyping strategy that we developed in order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the costs of establishing banks of clinical grade hESC lines in which human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes match a significant proportion of the population. Using whole genome amplification followed by medium resolution HLA typing using PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), we have typed the parents, embryos and hESC lines from three families as well as our eight clinical grade hESC lines and shown that this technical approach is rapid, reliable and accurate. By employing this pre-derivation strategy where, based on HLA match, embryos are selected for a GMP route on day 3-4 of development, we would have drastically reduced our cGMP laboratory running costs. © 2012 The Authors.

Howell W.M.,NHS Blood and Transplant | Harmer A.,NHS Blood and Transplant | Briggs D.,NHS Blood and Transplant | Dyer P.,Royal Infirmary | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Immunogenetics | Year: 2010

Ongoing technological developments in antibody detection and characterisation allowing relative quantitation of HLA-specific antibody levels, combined with crossmatch results, now allow a graded assessment of patient potential donor immunological risk for allotransplantation, rather than a simple 'positive' or 'negative' categorization of crossmatch results. These developments have driven a thorough revision of the British Society for Histocompatibility & Immunogenetics and British Transplantation Society Guidelines for the Detection and Characterisation of Clinically Relevant Antibodies in Allotransplantation. These newly published revised Guidelines contain a number of recommendations as to best practice for antibody detection and crossmatching for the transplantation of a wide range of solid organs and tissues. These recommendations are briefly summarized in this article. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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