Clinical Transplantation Laboratory

London, United Kingdom

Clinical Transplantation Laboratory

London, United Kingdom
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Lougee E.,Guys Hospital | Morjaria S.,Clinical Transplantation Laboratory | Shaw O.,Guys Hospital | Collins R.,Guys Hospital | Vaughan R.,King's College London
International Journal of Immunogenetics | Year: 2013

Summary: HLA-specific antibodies bind discrete clusters of amino acids called epitopes, but serological assignment of antibody specificities makes no reference to this. As HLA typing for solid organ transplantation is provided at only medium (serologically equivalent) resolution, this means that recipient HLA antibodies to donor HLA epitopes may not be identified. We have designed a novel and rapid HLA-A epitope typing method (epityping) using a two-stage PCR-SSP-based method to detect the HLA-A locus epitopes described by El Awar et al. 2007, Transplantation, 84, 532. The initial PCR step utilizes HLA-A locus-specific primers; the product is cleaned using the QIAquick Spin Purification procedure. The purified product is tested using our in-house epitope-specific primer panel, the results being visualized using gel electrophoresis. Twenty two UCLA DNA Exchange samples were epityped, blinded to the HLA type. Of the 75 primer pairs, the mean correlation coefficient was 0.95 with each sample giving 67 or more correct primer results. In all cases, it was possible to derive the first field classic HLA type from the epityping results. These results indicate that a method for identification of HLA epitopes which is comparable in time, cost and technical expertise to current HLA typing methods is achievable. Redesigning HLA typing to correlate with what the antibody binds should minimize inappropriate organ allocation. We suggest that epityping provides a more effective method than standard HLA typing for solid organ transplantation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | NHS Blood & Transplant, King's College London, Clinical Transplantation Laboratory and Guys Hospital
Type: | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2017

More than 40% of patients awaiting a kidney transplant in the UK are sensitised with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Median time to transplantation for such patients is double that of unsensitised patients at about 74 months. Removing antibody to perform an HLA-incompatible (HLAi) living donor transplantation is perceived to be high risk, although patient survival data are limited. We compared survival of patients opting for an HLAi kidney transplant with that of similarly sensitised patients awaiting a compatible organ.From the UK adult kidney transplant waiting list, we selected crossmatch positive living donor HLAi kidney transplant recipients who received their transplant between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2013, and were followed up to Dec 31, 2014 (end of study). These patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio with similarly sensitised patients cases listed for a deceased-donor transplant during that period. Data were censored both at the time of transplantation (listed only), and at the end of the study period (listed or transplant). We used Kaplan-Meier curves to compare patient survival between HLAi and the matched cohort.Of 25518 patient listings, 213 (1%) underwent HLAi transplantation during the study period. 852 matched controls were identified, of whom 41% (95% CI 32-50) remained without a transplant at 58 months after matching. We noted no difference in survival between patients who were in the HLAi group compared with the listed only group (log rank p=0446), or listed or transplant group (log rank p=0984).Survival of sensitised patients undergoing HLAi in the UK is comparable with those on dialysis awaiting a compatible organ, many of whom are unlikely to be have a transplant. Choosing a direct HLAi transplant has no detrimental effect on survival, but offers no survival benefit, by contrast with similar patients studied in a North American multicentre cohort.UK National Health Service Blood & Transplant and Guys & St Thomas National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre.


Aston A.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children | Cardigan R.,Components Development Laboratory | Bashir S.,Components Development Laboratory | Proffitt S.,Components Development Laboratory | And 11 more authors.
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2014

Results: A total of 106 children were included: 23 received no blood transfusions (group 1), six had washed cells only (group 2), 59 had standard transfusions only (group 3), and 18 had both standard and washed cells (group 4). Sensitization rates were 26, 17, 44, and 44 % in groups 1–4 (p = 0.32). Patients in groups 3 and 4 had more transfusions with red cells, platelets, and plasma products. There was no difference in HLA sensitization risk with washed or standard red cells on analysis of co-variance controlling for platelets and plasma transfusions. The red cell washing study showed no significant reduction in leukocytes using manual methods. Although there was a statistically significant reduction (33 %) from baseline pre-washing using the automated method, from 6.54 ± 0.84 × 106 to 4.36 ± 0.67 × 106 leukocytes per unit, the majority of leukocytes still remained.Conclusions: There was no evidence that using washed leucodepleted red cells reduced patient HLA sensitization rates. Washing leucodepleted red cells is unlikely to reduce the risk of HLA sensitization due to the limited effect on residual leukocytes.Background: Standard leucodepleted blood transfusions can induce the production of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-specific antibodies, which are associated with longer transplant waiting times and poorer graft outcomes. We hypothesized that additional washing of leucodepleted red cells might reduce antigenic stimulus by removal of residual leukocytes and soluble HLA.Methods: A retrospective review of HLA antibodies in children with chronic kidney disease stage 4–5 who had ≥two HLA antibody screens between 2000 and 2009, pre- and post-transfusion, and were HLA antibody-negative at first testing. Patients were divided according to whether they received standard leucodepleted blood or “washed cells”. To assess the efficacy of washing methods, total leukocytes were enumerated pre- and post- manual and automated washing of standard leucodepleted red cells that had been supplemented with whole blood to achieve measurable leukocyte levels pre-washing. © 2014, IPNA.


Murtuza B.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children | Fenton M.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children | Burch M.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children | Gupta A.,Clinical Transplantation Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: Recent reports suggest worse outcomes in pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for congenital heart disease (CHD) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). We examined early outcomes in these diverse groups of patients in comparison with patients with dilatated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods: From 2000 to 2011, 209 patients were included: 50 with CHD, 23 with RCM, and 136 with DCM. Early survival was studied, as was the occurrence of acute rejection, donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and nondonor-specific antibodies (NSDAs), incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PHT), right ventricular failure (RVF), and the need for mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Results: The incidence of preoperative PHT was greatest in the RCM group (χ2 p = 0.0006); the requirement for mechanical support before OHT was greatest in patients with DCM. Thirty-day survival was 92.0%, 97.1%, and 100% for patients with CHD, DCM, and RCM respectively. The incidence of RVF was highest for patients with RCM (43.5%; versus CHD, 26.0%; versus DCM, 14.7%). One-year survival estimates for patients with CHD, DCM, and RCM were 92.0%, 97.8%, and 82.6%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.165). Multivariable analysis revealed 4 significant risk factors for mortality: age, incidence of acute rejection, preoperative PHT, and the presence of NDSAs. The occurrence of DSAs was similar, although there was a significantly higher incidence of NDSAs in the CHD and RCM groups (36.0% and 30.4%, respectively, versus 14.0% in the DCM group; χ2 p = 0.0024). Conclusions: Equivalent outcomes are achievable in pediatric OHT despite marked heterogeneity in anatomic and physiologic complexity in recipients. Physiologic factors such as PHT are likely to be more important than anatomic complexities in determining survival. The potential relevance of NDSAs warrants further investigation. © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

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