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Bower W.F.,Clinical science Building | Vlantis A.C.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chung T.M.L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Van Hasselt C.A.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Acta Oto-Laryngologica | Year: 2010

Conclusion: As adverse effects of live-saving treatment are unavoidable surgeons have a duty to address physical changes and quality of life issues that matter to head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. We propose a tailored holistic care package. Objectives: This study compared the quality of life of H&N cancer survivors managed with different approaches in the follow-up phase after initial treatment and identified factors adversely impacting quality of life parameters. Methods: H&N cancer patients studied: 1) surgery only, 2) radiotherapy only, 3) surgery and radiotherapy, and 4) any combination of surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Patients unable to communicate in Cantonese, with thyroid cancer or end-of-life disease were excluded. EORTC QLQ-H&N35 Cantonese version was administered at least 1 year after initial H&N cancer treatment. Results: Quality of life impairment was worse in all of the domains for combination therapy versus monotherapy patients. Scores between surgery or radiotherapy-only patients were not significantly different. Radiotherapy preceding surgery impacted significantly more on speech than surgery before the radiotherapy. Patients with advanced disease had more impairment of quality of life in each domain than patients with early disease. Coughing, eating problems, sticky saliva, and difficulties with social contact were all significant predictors of problems associated with a dry mouth. © 2010 Informa Healthcare.

Varyani F.,University of Nottingham | Card T.,University of Nottingham | Kaye P.,University of Nottingham | Aithal G.P.,University of Nottingham | West J.,Clinical science Building
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2013

Background: Autoimmune Hepatitis is a chronic liver disease which affects young people and can result in liver failure leading to death or transplantation yet there is a lack of information on the incidence and prevalence of this disease and its natural history in the UK. A means of obtaining this information is via the use of clinical databases formed of electronic primary care records. How reliably the diagnosis is coded in such records is however unknown. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the proportion of consultant hepatologist diagnoses of Autoimmune Hepatitis which were accurately recorded in General Practice computerised records. Methods. Our study population were patients with Autoimmune Hepatitis diagnosed by consultant hepatologists in the Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals (UK) between 2004 and 2009. We wrote to the general practitioners of these patients to obtain the percentage of patients who had a valid READ code specific for Autoimmune Hepatitis. Results: We examined the electronic records of 51 patients who had biopsy evidence and a possible diagnosis of Autoimmune Hepatitis. Forty two of these patients had a confirmed clinical diagnosis of Autoimmune Hepatitis by a consultant hepatologist: we contacted the General Practitioners of these patients obtaining a response rate of 90.5% (39/42 GPs). 37/39 of these GPs responded with coding information and 89% of these patients (33/37) used Read code J638.00 (Autoimmune Hepatitis) to record a diagnosis. Conclusions: The diagnosis of Autoimmune Hepatitis made by a Consultant Hepatologist is accurately communicated to and electronically recorded by primary care in the UK. As a large proportion of cases of Autoimmune Hepatitis are recorded in primary care, this minimises the risk of introducing selection bias and therefore selecting cases using these data will be a valid method of conducting population based studies on Autoimmune Hepatitis. © 2013 Varyani et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Langan S.M.,Kings College London | Groves R.W.,Kings College London | West J.,Clinical science Building
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2011

Previous small studies and case reports have suggested that neurological disorders may be associated with bullous pemphigoid (BP). The objective of this study was to assess BP risk in patients with neurological diseases. Computerized medical records from the Health Improvement Network, a large population-based UK general practice database, were used to conduct a matched case-control analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for specified neurological disorders. Comparing cases (n868) to controls (n3,453), stroke was seen in 8 vs. 5%, odds ratio (OR) 1.8 (1.3-2.5); dementia in 7 vs. 2%, OR 3.4 (2.4-4.8); Parkinson's disease in 3 vs. 1%, OR 3.0 (1.8-5.0); epilepsy in 2 vs. 1%, OR 1.7 (1.0-3.0); and multiple sclerosis in 1 vs 0.1% (OR 10.7 (2.8-40.2). Estimates were not altered greatly when diagnoses up to 3 years before BP were excluded, except the association with epilepsy was no longer significant. Significant associations were only observed where neurological disease was diagnosed before the onset of pemphigoid. Study findings, except the association with epilepsy, were robust to sensitivity analysis. Strong associations were observed between specific neurological diseases and the later development of BP, supporting possible causal associations. Mechanisms for disease occurrence based on these findings include immobility or age-related autoimmunity. © 2011 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Leung K.-S.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lee K.H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Wang J.-F.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chan H.L.Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 4 more authors.
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics | Year: 2011

Extraction of meaningful information from large experimental data sets is a key element in bioinformatics research. One of the challenges is to identify genomic markers in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) that are associated with HCC (liver cancer) development by comparing the complete genomic sequences of HBV among patients with HCC and those without HCC. In this study, a data mining framework, which includes molecular evolution analysis, clustering, feature selection, classifier learning, and classification, is introduced. Our research group has collected HBV DNA sequences, either genotype B or C, from over 200 patients specifically for this project. In the molecular evolution analysis and clustering, three subgroups have been identified in genotype C and a clustering method has been developed to separate the subgroups. In the feature selection process, potential markers are selected based on Information Gain for further classifier learning. Then, meaningful rules are learned by our algorithm called the Rule Learning, which is based on Evolutionary Algorithm. Also, a new classification method by Nonlinear Integral has been developed. Good performance of this method comes from the use of the fuzzy measure and the relevant nonlinear integral. The nonadditivity of the fuzzy measure reflects the importance of the feature attributes as well as their interactions. These two classifiers give explicit information on the importance of the individual mutated sites and their interactions toward the classification (potential causes of liver cancer in our case). A thorough comparison study of these two methods with existing methods is detailed. For genotype B, genotype C subgroups C1, C2, and C3, important mutation markers (sites) have been found, respectively. These two classification methods have been applied to classify never-seen-before examples for validation. The results show that the classification methods have more than 70 percent accuracy and 80 percent sensitivity for most data sets, which are considered high as an initial scanning method for liver cancer diagnosis. © 2011 IEEE.

Ban L.,Clinical science Building | Tata L.J.,Clinical science Building | Fiaschi L.,Clinical science Building | Card T.,Clinical science Building | Card T.,University of Nottingham
Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Background & Aims Concerns persist about the risk of major congenital anomalies in children of women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and whether medication use affects risk. We assessed these risks, and variations in use of medications by women with IBD before, during, and after pregnancy. Methods We accessed data on children born to women 15-45 y old from 1990 through 2010, using a mother-child linked dataset from an electronic database of primary care records containing medical diagnoses, events, and drug prescriptions from across the United Kingdom. We identified pregnant women with IBD, and all prescriptions for 5-aminosalicylates azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine, and corticosteroids were extracted from their primary care records. We calculated risks of major congenital anomaly in children of mothers with and without IBD, and in children exposed or not exposed to 5-aminosalicylates, azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine, or corticosteroids during their first trimester of fetal development. Logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation was used to provide risk estimates adjusted for confounders. We calculated proportions of women taking medications before, during, and after pregnancy and assessed whether cessation was associated with subsequent disease flares. Results Risks of a major congenital anomaly in 1703 children of mothers with IBD and 384,811 children of mothers without IBD were 2.7% and 2.8%, respectively. This corresponded to an adjusted odds ratio of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-1.31). In children of women with IBD, the adjusted odds ratios of a major congenital anomaly associated with drug use were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.42-1.61) for 5-aminosalicylates 0.48 (95% CI, 0.15-1.50) for corticosteroids, and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.48-3.39) for azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine. No increases in heart, limb, or genital anomalies were found in children of women with IBD; 31.2% of women discontinued 5-aminosalicylates and 24.6% discontinued azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine in early pregnancy. The risk of flares later in pregnancy was not related to cessation of medication. Conclusions We found no evidence that IBD during pregnancy or medical therapy for IBD during pregnancy increases the risk of a major congenital anomaly in children. Patients should receive appropriate guidance on use of medication before and during pregnancy. © 2014 by the AGA Institute.

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