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Patterson S.M.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | Hughes C.M.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | Cardwell C.,Queens University of Belfast | Lapane K.L.,Virginia Commonwealth University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an adapted U.S. model of pharmaceutical care to improve psychoactive prescribing for nursing home residents in Northern Ireland (Fleetwood NI Study). DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Nursing homes in NI randomized to intervention (receipt of the adapted model of care; n=11) or control (usual care continued; n=11). PARTICIPANTS: Residents aged 65 and older who provided informed consent (N=253; 128 intervention, 125 control) and who had full resource use data at 12 months. INTERVENTION: Trained pharmacists reviewed intervention home residents' clinical and prescribing information for 12 months, applied an algorithm that guided them in assessing the appropriateness of psychoactive medication, and worked with prescribers (general practitioners) to make changes. The control homes received usual care in which there was no pharmacist intervention. MEASUREMENTS: The proportion of residents prescribed one or more inappropriate psychoactive medications (according to standardized protocols), costs, and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. The latter two outcomes are the focus for this article. RESULTS: The proportions of residents receiving inappropriate psychoactive medication at 12 months in the intervention and control group were 19.5% and 50.4%, respectively. The mean cost of healthcare resources used per resident per year was $4,923 (95% confidence interval (CI)=$4,206-5,640) for the intervention group and $5,053 (95% CI=$4,328-5,779) for the control group. The probability of the intervention being cost-effective was high, even at low levels of willingness to pay to avoid a resident receiving inappropriately prescribed psychoactive medication. CONCLUSION: The Fleetwood NI model of care was more cost-effective than usual care. © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society. Source


Lavery K.A.,Belfast Health and Social Care Trust | O'Neill B.,University of Ulster | Parker M.,Clinical Research Support Center | Elborn J.S.,Queens University of Belfast | Bradley J.M.,University of Ulster
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of a disease-specific Expert Patient Programme (EPP) compared with usual care in patients with bronchiectasis. Design: Proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial. Setting: Regional respiratory center. Participants: Adult patients (N=64; age, >18y) with a primary diagnosis of bronchiectasis based on a respiratory physician's assessment including a computed tomographic scan. Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned to an intervention (usual care plus EPP; n=32) or control group (usual care only; n=32). Main Outcome Measure(s): The primary outcome measure was the Chronic Disease Self-efficacy Scale (CDSS). Other outcome measures included the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), the St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, and standard EPP questionnaires. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention, and 3 and 6 months postintervention. Results: This disease-specific EPP for patients with bronchiectasis significantly improved self-efficacy in 6 of 10 subscales (CDSS subscales: exercise regularly [P=.02]; get information about disease [P=.03]; obtain help from community, family, and friends [P=.06]; communicate with physician [P=.85]; manage disease in general [P=.05]; do chores [P=.04]; social/recreational activities [P=.03]; manage symptoms [P<.01]; manage shortness of breath [P=.08]; control/manage depression [P=.01]) compared with usual care. There was no improvement on IPQ-R score. Patients who received the intervention reported more symptoms and decreased quality of life between 3 and 6 months postintervention and an increase in some components of self reported health care use. Patients receiving the disease-specific EPP indicated they were satisfied with the intervention and learned new self-management techniques. There were no significant differences in lung function over time. Conclusions: This original study indicates that a disease-specific EPP results in short-term improvements in self-efficacy. Based on these positive preliminary findings, a larger adequately powered study is justified to investigate the efficacy of a disease-specific EPP in patients with bronchiectasis. © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Source


Craig T.R.,Regional Intensive Care Unit | Craig T.R.,Queens University of Belfast | Duffy M.J.,Regional Intensive Care Unit | Duffy M.J.,Queens University of Belfast | And 7 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome are characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, which can be assessed by measurement of extravascular lung water. Traditionally, extravascular lung water has been indexed to actual body weight (mL/kg). Because lung size is dependent on height rather than weight, we hypothesized indexing to predicted body weight may be a better predictor of mortality in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary referral intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Patients were recruited within 48 hrs of fulfilling the American European Consensus Conference definition of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Demographics, severity of illness scores, and respiratory parameters were collected. Extravascular lung water was measured using the PiCCO system. This was indexed to actual and predicted body weight. Statistically significant predictors of mortality identified using single regressor logistic regression and additional variables known to be associated with outcome were entered into a multiple logistic regression analysis. Receiver operator characteristic curves were generated. Forty-four patients were recruited (septic 34%). Using single regressor logistic regression, six variables were statistically significantly related to mortality: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, PaO2, PaO2/Fio2 ratio, oxygenation index, actual extravascular lung water, and predicted extravascular lung water. In multiple logistic regression analysis, predicted extravascular lung water but not actual extravascular lung water was a predictor of mortality with an odds ratio of 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-12.9) per sd. Although the area under the curve for predicted extravascular lung water (0.8; confidence interval, 0.65-0.94) was larger than for actual extravascular lung water (0.72; confidence interval, 0.53-0.91), this was not statistically significant (p =.12). A baseline predicted extravascular lung water value of 16 mL/kg predicted intensive care unit mortality with a sensitivity of 0.75 (confidence interval, 0.47-0.91) and specificity of 0.78 (confidence interval, 0.61-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: Early measurement of predicted extravascular lung water is a better predictor than actual extravascular lung water to identify patients at risk for death in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Copyright © 2009 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Wulff J.,Clinical Research Support Center | Wild S.H.,University of Edinburgh
Scottish Medical Journal | Year: 2011

In most countries in the Western world, more than 50% of adults are overweight or obese putting them at increased risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke and other chronic disorders. It is not clear what impact increasing prevalence of over-weight and obesity has on hospital admissions. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and number of days spent in hospital. The study was designed as a retrospective and prospective cohort study using nationally representative Health Survey data linked to NHS hospital admissions data. The study was set in Scotland. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 6968 (45%) men and 8700 (55%) women, of 16-74 years of age, living in private households whose BMI was recorded in the 1995 and 1998 Scottish Health Surveys. The outcome measure was the number of days spent in hospital between 1981 and 2004. The results showed that the proportion of participants in both normal weight (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m2) and over-weight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) categories was 37%, with 21% in the obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and 5% in the under-weight (BMI,20 kg/m2) categories. The median number of days spent in hospital between 1981 and 2004 was six. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for spending above the median numbers of days in hospital adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status and behavioural factors (i.e. smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity) were 1.29 (1.06-1.56) for the,20 kg/m2 group, 1.00 (0.91-1.11) for the 25-29.9 kg/m2 group and 1.24 (1.10-1.38) for the ≥30 kg/m2 group compared with the 20-24.9 kg/m2 group. In conclusion, extremes of BMI category identified at a single point in time are associated with spending above the median number of days in hospital over a 20-year period after adjusting for demographic, behavioural and socioeconomic exposures. Source


Cross L.J.M.,Queens University of Belfast | Cross L.J.M.,Regional Intensive Care Unit | O'Kane C.M.,Queens University of Belfast | McDowell C.,Clinical Research Support Center | And 4 more authors.
Trials | Year: 2013

Background: Acute lung injury is a common, devastating clinical syndrome associated with substantial mortality and morbidity with currently no proven therapeutic interventional strategy to improve patient outcomes. The objectives of this study are to test the potential therapeutic effects of keratinocyte growth factor for patients with acute lung injury on oxygenation and biological indicators of acute inflammation, lung epithelial and endothelial function, protease:antiprotease balance, and lung extracellular matrix degradation and turnover. Methods/design: This will be a prospective, randomised, double-blind, allocation-concealed, placebo-controlled, phase 2, multicentre trial. Randomisation will be stratified by presence of severe sepsis requiring vasopressors. Patients in an ICU fulfilling the American-European Consensus Conference Definition of acute lung injury will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive an intravenous bolus of either keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin, 60 μg/kg) or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride solution) daily for a maximum of 6 days. The primary endpoint of this clinical study is to evaluate the efficacy of palifermin to improve the oxygenation index at day 7 or the last available oxygenation index prior to patient discontinuation from the study. A formal statistical analysis plan has been constructed. Analyses will be carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. A single analysis is planned at the end of the trial. P = 0.05 will be considered statistically significant and all tests will be two-sided. For continuously distributed outcomes, differences between groups will be tested using independent-sample t tests, analysis of variance and analysis of covariance with transformation of variables to normality or nonparametric equivalents. The trial will be reported in line with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (Consort 2010 guidelines).Trial registration: http://ISRCTN95690673. © 2013 Cross et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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