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Albuquerque, NM, United States

Duckworth W.C.,Phoenix Health Care Center | Abraira C.,Miami Medical Center | Moritz T.E.,Csp Inc. | Davis S.N.,Tennessee Valley Health Care System | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2011

Background: The goal of the VA Diabetes Trial (VADT) was to determine the effect of intensive glucose control on macrovascular events in subjects with difficult-to-control diabetes. No significant benefit was found. This report examines predictors of the effect of intensive therapy on the primary outcome in this population. Methods: This trial included 1791 subjects. Baseline cardiovascular risk factors were collected by interview and the VA record. The analyses were done by intention to treat. Findings: Univariate analysis at baseline of predictors of a primary cardiovascular (CV) event included a prior CV event, age, insulin use at baseline, and duration of diagnosed diabetes (all P<.0001). Multivariable modeling revealed a U-shaped relationship between duration of diabetes and treatment. Modeled estimates for the hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment show that subjects with a short duration (3 years or less) of diagnosed diabetes have a nonsignificant increase in risk (HR >1.0) after which the HR is below 1.0. From 7 to 15 years' duration at entry, subjects have HRs favoring intensive treatment. Thereafter the HR approaches 1.0 and over-21-years' duration approaches 2.0. Duration over 21 years resulted in a HR of 1.977 (CI 1.77-3.320, P<.01). Baseline c-peptide levels progressively declined up to 15 years and were stable subsequently. Interpretation: In difficult-to-control older subjects with type 2 DM, duration of diabetes altered the response to intensive glucose control. Intensive therapy may reduce CV events in subjects with a duration of 15 years or less and may increase risks in those with longer duration. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

McFall M.,Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System | McFall M.,University of Washington | Saxon A.J.,Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System | Saxon A.J.,University of Washington | And 16 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2010

Context: Most smokers with mental illness do not receive tobacco cessation treatment. Objective: To determine whether integrating smoking cessation treatment into mental health care for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) improves longterm smoking abstinence rates. Design, Setting, and Patients: A randomized controlled trial of 943 smokers with military-related PTSD who were recruited from outpatient PTSD clinics at 10 Veterans Affairs medical centers and followed up for 18 to 48 months between November 2004 and July 2009. Intervention: Smoking cessation treatment integrated within mental health care for PTSD delivered by mental health clinicians (integrated care [IC]) vs referral to Veterans Affairs smoking cessation clinics (SCC). Patients received smoking cessation treatment within 3 months of study enrollment. Main Outcome Measures Smoking outcomes included 12-month bioverified prolonged abstinence (primary outcome) and 7- and 30-day point prevalence abstinence assessed at 3-month intervals. Amount of smoking cessation medications and counseling sessions delivered were tested as mediators of outcome. Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression were repeatedly assessed using the PTSD Checklist and Patient Health Questionnaire 9, respectively, to determine if IC participation or quitting smoking worsened psychiatric status. Results: Integrated care was better than SCC on prolonged abstinence (8.9% vs 4.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-3.91; P=.004). Differences between IC vs SCC were largest at 6 months for 7-day point prevalence abstinence (78/472 [16.5%] vs 34/471 [7.2%], P<.001) and remained significant at 18 months (86/472 [18.2%] vs 51/471 [10.8%], P<.001). Number of counseling sessions received and days of cessation medication used explained 39.1% of the treatment effect. Between baseline and 18 months, psychiatric status did not differ between treatment conditions. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms for quitters and nonquitters improved. Nonquitters worsened slightly on the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 relative to quitters (differences ranged between 0.4 and 2.1, P=.03), whose scores did not change over time. Conclusion: Among smokers with military-related PTSD, integrating smoking cessation treatment into mental health care compared with referral to specialized cessation treatment resulted in greater prolonged abstinence. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00118534 ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Sullivan M.D.,University of Washington | O'Connor P.,HealthPartners | Feeney P.,Wake forest University | Hire D.,Wake forest University | And 7 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - Depression affects up to 20-25% of adults with type 2 diabetes and may increase all-cause mortality, but few well-designed studies have examined the effects of depression on the full range of cardiovascular disease outcomes in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 2,053 participants in the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) Health-Related Quality of Life substudy completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 measure of depression symptoms at baseline and 12, 36, and 48 months. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) for the time-varying impact of depression on protocol-defined clinical outcomes with and without adjustment for demographic, trial-related, clinical, and behavioral variables. RESULTS - In fully adjusted models, depression was not significantly related to the ACCORD primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death, nonfatal heart attack, or stroke) (HR 1.53 [95% CI 0.85-2.73]) or to the ACCORD microvascular composite outcome (0.93 [0.53-1.62]), but all-cause mortality was significantly increased both in those with PHQ-assessed probable major depression (2.24 [1.24-4.06]) and PHQ score of ≥10 (1.84 [1.17-2.89]). The effect of depression on all-cause mortality was not related to previous cardiovascular events or to assignment to intensive or standard glycemia control. Probable major depression (by PHQ-9) had a borderline impact on the ACCORD macrovascular end point (1.42 [0.99-2.04]). CONCLUSIONS - Depression increases the risk of all-causemortality andmay increase the risk of macrovascular events among adults with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.

Raisch D.W.,University of New Mexico | Raisch D.W.,Clinical Research Pharmacy Coordinating Center | Feeney P.,Wake forest University | Goff Jr D.C.,Wake forest University | And 5 more authors.
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2012

Background: Health utility (HU) measures are used as overall measures of quality of life and to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in economic analyses. We compared baseline values of three HUs including Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D), and Health Utilities Index, Mark II and Mark III (HUI2 and HUI3) and the feeling thermometer (FT) among type 2 diabetes participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. We assessed relationships between HU and FT values and patient demographics and clinical variables.Methods: ACCORD was a randomized clinical trial to test if intensive controls of glucose, blood pressure and lipids can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes patients with high risk of CVD. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) sub-study includes 2,053 randomly selected participants. Interclass correlations (ICCs) and agreement between measures by quartile were used to evaluate relationships between HU's and the FT. Multivariable regression models specified relationships between patient variables and each HU and the FT.Results: The ICCs were 0.245 for FT/SF-6D, 0.313 for HUI3/SF-6D, 0.437 for HUI2/SF-6D, 0.338 for FT/HUI2, 0.337 for FT/HUI3 and 0.751 for HUI2/HUI3 (P < 0.001 for all). Common classification by quartile was found for the majority (62%) of values between HUI2 and HUI3, which was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than between other HUs and the FT: SF-6D/HUI3 = 40.8%, SF-6D/HUI2 = 40.9%, FT/HUI3 = 35.0%, FT/HUI2 = 34.9%, and FT/SF-6D = 31.9%. Common classification was higher between SF-6D/HUI2 and SF-6D/HUI3 (P < 0.001) than between FT/SF-6D, FT/HUI2, and FT/HUI3. The mean difference in HU values per patient ranged from -0.024 ± 0.225 for SF-6D/ HUI3 to -0.124 ± 0.133 for SF-6D/HUI2. Regression models were significant; clinical and demographic variables explained 6.1% (SF-6D) to 7.7% (HUI3) of the variance in HUs.Conclusions: The agreements between the different HUs were poor except for the two HUI measures; therefore HU values derived different measures may not be comparable. The FT had low agreement with HUs. The relationships between HUs and demographic and clinical measures demonstrate how severity of diabetes and other clinical and demographic factors are associated with HUs and FT measures.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620. © 2012 Raisch et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Snodgrass A.J.,Clinical Research Pharmacy Coordinating Center | Campbell H.M.,Clinical Research Pharmacy Coordinating Center | Mace D.L.,Clinical Research Pharmacy Coordinating Center | Faria V.L.,Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Heath Care System | And 3 more authors.
Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2010

The phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors-sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil-are used primarily in erectile dysfunction, but sildenafil is also indicated for pulmonary hypertension. Common adverse effects of vardenafil include headache, flushing, nasal congestion, dyspepsia, and nausea. Recently, PDE-5 inhibitors have been associated with adverse vision effects, and emerging evidence now indicates that they may also be responsible for hearing changes and hearing loss. We describe a patient who developed unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss possibly related to the use of vardenafil for erectile dysfunction. To our knowledge, only one other case of hearing loss related to this drug class has been published. Our patient was a 57-year-old man who came to the emergency department with right-sided mild-to-moderate hearing loss in the 500-3000-Hz range, confirmed by audiogram, that occurred after ingestion of vardenafil. The patient was hospitalized 2 days later for administration of intravenous dexamethasone, followed by oral prednisone. He reported that his hearing had improved on the fourth hospital day and was discharged 3 days later, continuing to taper the prednisone on an outpatient basis. A repeat audiogram after 10 days of corticosteroid therapy confirmed that his hearing in the 500-3000-Hz range was within normal limits. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a possible (score of 3) adverse reaction of sudden sensorineural hearing loss associated with vardenafil consumption. We also performed an analysis of hearing loss cases related to PDE-5 inhibitors in the United States Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System database to compare the characteristics of our patient with those of other reported adverse event cases. Based on the temporal relation of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss to this patient's drug consumption, we propose that the vardenafil is a likely cause of the hearing loss. This case provides further evidence that PDE-5 inhibitor consumption should be considered as a possible cause in patients presenting with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

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