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Yoshikawa Y.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Adachi Y.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Yasui H.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Hattori M.,Clinical Research Institute for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases | Sakurai H.,Suzuka University of Medical Science
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2011

In recent years, the number of patients suffering from diseases, such as cancer, apoplexy, osteoporosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Type 2 diabetes, a lifestyle-related disease, is recognized as a serious disease. Various types of pharmaceutics for diabetes have been used. Since the relationship between diabetes and biometals such as vanadium, copper, and zinc ions has been recognized for many years, we have been developing the anti-diabetic metal complexes as new candidates. We found that several zinc(II) (Zn) complexes exhibit glucose-lowering activity for treating type 2 diabetes. High doses of salicylates have been known to reverse hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetic patients. These findings strongly suggest that the combined use of Zn and salicylates achieves the synergism in treating type 2 diabetes. Because aspirin, acetyl salicylic acid, has a chelating ability, we used it as a ligand to Zn. Several Zn-salicylate complexes were prepared and their biological activities were examined in this study. The complexes with an electron- withdrawing group in the ligand exhibited higher in vitro insulinomimetic activity than those of Zn complexes with an electron-donating group in the ligand. When bis(aspirinato)Zn (Zn(asp) 2) complex was orally administered on KK-A y mice with hereditary type 2 diabetes, the diabetic state was improved. In addition, this complex exhibited normalizing effects on serum adiponectin level and high blood pressure in metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, Zn(asp) 2 complex is newly proposed as a potent anti-diabetic and anti-metabolic syndrome agent. © 2011 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. Source

Sakurai H.,Suzuka University of Medical Science | Katoh A.,Seikei University | Kiss T.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Jakusch T.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Hattori M.,Clinical Research Institute for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases
Metallomics | Year: 2010

Metabolic syndrome and the accompanied diabetes mellitus are both important diseases worldwide due to changes of lifestyle and eating habits. The number of patients with diabetes worldwide is estimated to increase to 300 million by 2025 from 150-220 million in 2010. There are two main types of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, caused by destruction of pancreatic β-cells resulting in absolute deficiency of intrinsic insulin secretion, the patients require exogenous insulin injections several times a day. In type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance and abnormal insulin secretion, the patients need exercise, diet control and/or several types of hypoglycemics. The idea of using metal ions for the treatment of diabetes originates from the report in 1899. The research on the role of metal ions that may contribute to the improvement of diabetes began. The orally active metal complexes containing vanadyl (oxidovanadium(iv)) ion and cysteine or other ligands were first proposed in 1990, and a wide class of vanadium, copper and zinc complexes was found to be effective for treating diabetes in experimental animals. We noticed a characteristic compound, allixin, which is a non-sulfur component in dry garlic. Its vanadyl and zinc complexes improved both types of diabetes following oral administration in diabetic animals. We then developed a new zinc complex with thioxoallixin-N-methyl (tanm), which is both a sulfur and N-methyl derivative of allixin, and found that this complex improves not only diabetes but also metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, new zinc complexes inspired from the zinc-tanm were prepared; one of them exceeded the activity of zinc-tanm. The mechanism of such complexes was studied in adipocytes. We describe here the usefulness of the development of metal-based complexes in the context of potential therapeutic application for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Nishimura S.,Kinki University | Nishimura S.,Clinical Research Institute for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases | Ishikura H.,Fukuoka University | Matsunami M.,Kinki University | And 7 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2010

Aims: Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) are co-localized in the primary afferents, and the trans-activation of TRPV1 by PAR2 activation is involved in processing of somatic pain. Given evidence for contribution of PAR2 to pancreatic pain, the present study aimed at clarifying the involvement of TRPV1 in processing of pancreatic pain by the proteinase/PAR2 pathway in mice. Main methods: Acute pancreatitis was created by repeated administration of cerulein in conscious mice, and the referred allodynia/hyperalgesia was assessed using von Frey filaments. Injection of PAR2 agonists into the pancreatic duct was achieved in anesthetized mice, and expression of Fos in the spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemistry. Key findings: The established referred allodynia/hyperalgesia following cerulein treatment was abolished by post-treatment with nafamostat mesilate, a proteinase inhibitor, and with capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, in mice. Injection of trypsin, an endogenous PAR2 agonist, or SLIGRL-NH2, a PAR2-activating peptide, into the pancreatic duct caused expression of Fos protein in the spinal superficial layers at T8-T10 levels in the mice. The spinal Fos expression caused by trypsin and by SLIGRL-NH2 was partially blocked by capsazepine, the former effect abolished by nafamostat mesilate. Significance: Our data thus suggest that the proteinase/PAR2/TRPV1 cascade might impact pancreatic pain, in addition to somatic pain, and play a role in the maintenance of pancreatitis-related pain in mice. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Futawaka K.,University of Hyogo | Tagami T.,Clinical Research Institute for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases | Fukuda Y.,University of Hyogo | Koyama R.,University of Hyogo | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2016

The active form of vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3, also known as calcitriol) controls the expression of target genes via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II (VDDRII) is a congenital disease caused by inactivating mutations in the VDR. The condition is treated with high doses of calcitriol, but the therapeutic effects of other synthetic VD3 analogs have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional activity of seven different VD3 analogs with VDRs carrying ligandbinding domain mutations identified in VDDRII patients. Wild-type VDR (WT-VDR) and seven mutant VDRs were expressed in TSA201 human embryonic kidney cells, HepG2 human liver cancer cells, and MC3T3-E1 mouse calvaria cells, and their transcriptional activation with VD3 analogs were analyzed by performing transient expression assays, western blotting, and quantitative real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that falecalcitriol stimulated significantly higher transcriptional activation of the WT-VDR and some mutant VDRs than did calcitriol. Calcitriol showed almost no transcriptional activation of the VDR with the I268T mutation identified in a severe case of VDDRII, whereas falecalcitriol caused a dose-dependent increase in the activation of this mutant VDR. Our findings demonstrate that falecalcitriol has a VDR activation profile distinct from that of calcitriol and may exhibit therapeutic effects even on difficult-to-treat VDDRII cases resistant to calcitriol. It is also possible that VDDRII patients responding to high doses of calcitriol could be appropriately treated with low doses of falecalcitriol. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology. Source

Futawaka K.,Mukogawa Womens University | Tagami T.,Clinical Research Institute for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases | Fukuda Y.,Mukogawa Womens University | Koyama R.,Mukogawa Womens University | And 7 more authors.
Growth Hormone and IGF Research | Year: 2016

Objective: To determine if and how growth hormone (GH) signaling is involved in energy metabolism. Design: We used human embryonic kidney TSA201 cells, human H-EMC-SS chondrosarcoma cells, rat L6 skeletal muscle cells, and murine C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts to investigate GH-induced expression of uncoupling protein2 (UCP2) to the GHR/JAK/STAT5 pathway by a combination of a reporter assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting. Results: We demonstrated that the regulation energy metabolism, which was hypothesized to be directly acted on by GH, involves UCP2 via activated STAT5B, a signal transducer downstream of GH. We also showed that the sequence at the -. 586 'TTCnGA' may function as a novel putative consensus sequence of STAT5s. Conclusion: The results suggest that GH regulates energy metabolism directly in myocytes and that UCP2 participates in the signal transduction pathway that functions downstream of the GHR/JAK/STAT. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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