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Kim D.H.,Seoul National University | Kim D.H.,Clinical Research Center for End Stage Renal Disease in Korea | Kim M.,Eulji University | Kim M.,Clinical Research Center for End Stage Renal Disease in Korea | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The timing of referral to a nephrologist may influence the outcome of chronic kidney disease patients, but its impact has not been evaluated thoroughly. The results of a recent study showing an association between early referral and patient survival are still being debated. A total of 1028 patients newly diagnosed as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from July 2008 to October 2011 were enrolled. Early referral (ER) was defined as patients meeting with a nephrologist more than a year before dialysis and dialysis education were provided, and all others were considered late referral (LR). The relationship of referral pattern with mortality in ESRD patients was explored using a Cox proportional hazards regression models. Time from referral to dialysis was significantly longer in 599 ER patients than in 429 LR patients (62.3±58.9 versus 2.9±3.4 months, P<0.001). Emergency HD using a temporary vascular catheter was required in 485 (47.2%) out of all patients and in 262 (43.7%) of ER compared with 223 (52.0%) of LR (P = 0.009). After 2 years of follow-up, the survival rate in ER was better than that in LR (hazard ratio [HR] 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-4.45, P = 0.007). In patients with diabetes nephropathy, patient survival was also significantly higher in ER than in LR (HR 4.74, 95% CI 1.73-13.00, P = 0.002). With increasing age, HR also increased. Timely referral to a nephrologist in the predialytic stage is associated with reduced mortality. © 2013 Kim et al. Source


Kim H.,Seoul National University | An J.N.,Seoul National University | Kim D.K.,Seoul National University | Kim M.-H.,Clinical Research Center for End Stage Renal Disease in Korea | And 36 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in elderly patients have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and risk factors associated with PD in elderly patients. We conducted a prospective observational nationwide adult end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cohort study in Korea from August 2008 to March 2013. Among incident patients (n = 830), patient and technical survival rate, quality of life, and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of elderly PD patients (≥65 years, n = 95) were compared with those of PD patients aged ≤49 years (n = 205) and 50∼64 years (n = 192); and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients (n = 315). The patient death and technical failure were analyzed by cumulative incidence function. Competing risk regressions were used to assess the risk factors for survival. The patient survival rate of elderly PD patients was inferior to that of younger PD patients (P<0.001). However, the technical survival rate was similar (P = 0.097). Compared with elderly HD patients, the patient survival rate did not differ according to dialysis modality (P = 0.987). Elderly PD patients showed significant improvement in the BDI scores, as compared with the PD patients aged ≤49 years (P = 0.003). Low albumin, diabetes and low residual renal function were significant risk factors for the PD patient survival; and peritonitis was a significant risk factor for technical survival. Furthermore, low albumin and hospitalization were significant risk factors of patient survival among the elderly. The overall outcomes were similar between elderly PD and HD patients. PD showed the benefit in BDI and quality of life in the elderly. Additionally, the technical survival rate of elderly PD patients was similar to that of younger PD patients. Taken together, PD may be a comparable modality for elderly ESRD patients. © 2015 Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Choi J.-Y.,Kyungpook National University | Choi J.-Y.,Clinical Research Center for End Stage Renal Disease in Korea | Yoon Y.J.,Korea Basic Science Institute | Choi H.-J.,Kyungpook National University | And 14 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2011

Background. The body metabolism of patients with end-stage renal disease may be altered in response to long-term dialysis treatment. Moreover, the pattern of serum metabolites could change depending on the type of dialysis modality used. However, dialysis modality-dependent changes in serum metabolites are poorly understood. Our aim was to profile comprehensively serum metabolites by exploiting a novel method of 1H-NMR-based metabonomics and identify the differences in metabolite patterns in subjects receiving haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD).Methods. Anuric and non-diabetic HD patients were matched to PD patients for age, sex and dialysis duration. Accurate concentrations of serum metabolites were determined using the target-profiling procedure, and differences in the levels of metabolites were compared using multivariate analysis.Results. Principal Components Analysis score plots showed that the metabolic patterns could be discriminated by dialysis modalities. Hypoxanthine and inosine were present only with HD, whereas serum xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid levels were not different. In contrast, PD was associated with higher levels of lactate, glucose, maltose, pyruvate, succinate, alanine, and glutamate linked to glucose metabolism and the tri-carboxylic acid cycle. Maltose appeared only in patients using icodextrin solution for PD. Known uraemic retention solutes such as urea, creatinine, myo-inositol and trimethylamine-N-oxide were increased in both dialysis groups.Conclusions. Metabonomics shows apparent differences in the profiles of serum metabolites between HD and PD, which were influenced by dialysis-related processes. Inosine and hypoxanthine are present only in HD patients, which is likely to represent more hypoxic and oxidative stress. © 2010 The Author. Source


Kwon O.,Kyungpook National University | Kwon O.,Clinical Research Center for End Stage Renal Disease in Korea | Jang H.M.,Kyungpook National University | Jang H.M.,Clinical Research Center for End Stage Renal Disease in Korea | And 46 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Anemia is an important risk factor for mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, higher hemoglobin (Hb) is not necessarily better, as seen in several studies. This study aimed to validate the clinical use of an Hb target of 10-11 g/dL in Korean HD patients. Methods A total of 1,276 HD patients from the Clinical Research Center (CRC) for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) were investigated in a prospective observational study. Cox proportional hazard analysis was conducted for each category of time-dependent Hb level and erythropoiesis- stimulating agent (ESA) dose, with subgroup analysis stratified by age and diabetes status. Results Using a reference Hb level of 10-11 g/dL, the hazard ratios (HRs) of death were 5.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.62-10.02, P <0.05) for Hb level <9.0 g/dL, and 2.03 (CI, 1.16- 3.69, P <0.05) for Hb level 9.0-10.0 g/dL, after adjustment for multiple clinical variables. However, an Hb level ≥11 g/dL was not associated with decreased mortality risk. In an adjusted model categorized by Hb and ESA dose, the risk of death at an Hb level <10 g/dL and a higher dose of ESA (≥126 U/kg/week) had an HR of 2.25 (CI, 1.03-4.92, P <0.05), as compared to Hb level 10-11 g/dL and a lower dose of ESA. In subgroup analysis, those older than 65 years or who were diabetic had greater risk for mortality only in Hb category <9.0 g/dL. However, there was no significant interaction between age or diabetes status and Hb. Conclusion Using CRC-ESRD data, we validated the association between Hb and ESA dose and mortality in Korean HD patients. The clinical practice target of an Hb of 10-11 g/dL before the new KDIGO guideline era seems reasonable considering its survival benefit in HD patients. © 2015 Kwon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Choi J.-Y.,Kyungpook National University | Choi J.-Y.,Clinical Research Center for End Stage Renal Disease in Korea | Jang H.M.,Kyungpook National University | Jang H.M.,Clinical Research Center for End Stage Renal Disease in Korea | And 43 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: The impact of dialysis modality on survival is still somewhat controversial. Given possible differences in patients' characteristics and the cause and rate of death in different countries, the issue needs to be evaluated in Korean cohorts. Methods: A nationwide prospective observational cohort study (NCT00931970) was performed to compare survival between peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). A total of 1,060 end-stage renal disease patients in Korea who began dialysis between September 1, 2008 and June 30, 2011 were followed through December 31, 2011. Results: The patients (PD, 30.6%; HD, 69.4%) were followed up for 16.3±7.9 months. PD patients were significantly younger, less likely to be diabetic, with lower body mass index, and larger urinary volume than HD patients. Infection was the most common cause of death. Multivariate Cox regression with the entire cohort revealed that PD tended to be associated with a lower risk of death compared to HD [hazard ratio (HR) 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-1.08]. In propensity score matched pairs (n = 278 in each modality), cumulative survival probabilities for PD and HD patients were 96.9% and 94.1% at 12 months (P = 0.152) and 94.3% and 87.6% at 24 months (P = 0.022), respectively. Patients on PD had a 51% lower risk of death compared to those on HD (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.97). Conclusions: PD exhibits superior survival to HD in the early period of dialysis, even after adjusting for differences in the patients' characteristics between the two modalities. Notably, the most common cause of death was infection in this Korean cohort. © 2013 Choi et al. Source

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