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Baltimore Highlands, MD, United States

Lovell K.M.,University of Kansas | Vasiljevik T.,University of Kansas | Araya J.J.,University of Kansas | Lozama A.,University of Iowa | And 7 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Modification of the furan ring of salvinorin A (1), the main active component of Salvia divinorum, has resulted in novel neoclerodane diterpenes with opioid receptor affinity and activity. Conversion of the furan ring to an aldehyde at the C-12 position (5) has allowed for the synthesis of analogues with new carbon-carbon bonds at that position. Previous methods for forming these bonds, such as Grignard and Stille conditions, have met with limited success. We report a palladium catalyzed Liebeskind-Srogl cross-coupling reaction of a thioester and a boronic acid that occurs at neutral pH and ambient temperature to produce ketone analogs at C-12. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported usage of the Liebeskind-Srogl reaction to diversify a natural product scaffold. We also describe a one-step protocol for the conversion of 1 to 12-epi-1 (3) through microwave irradiation. Previously, this synthetically challenging process has required multiple steps. Additionally, we report in this study that alkene 9 and aromatic analogues 12, 19, 23, 25, and 26 were discovered to retain affinity and selectivity at kappa opioid receptors (KOP). Finally, we report that the furan-2-yl analog of 1 (31) has similar affinity to 1. Collectively, these findings suggest that different aromatic groups appended directly to the decalin core may be well tolerated by KOP receptors, and may generate further ligands with affinity and activity at KOP receptors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lozama A.,University of Iowa | Cunningham C.W.,University of Kansas | Caspers M.J.,University of Kansas | Douglas J.T.,University of Kansas | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2011

As part of our continuing efforts toward more fully understanding the structure-activity relationships of the neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, we report the synthesis and biological characterization of unique cycloadducts through [4+2] Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Microwave-assisted methods were developed and successfully employed, aiding in functionalizing the chemically sensitive salvinorin A scaffold. This demonstrates the first reported results for both cycloaddition of the furan ring and functionalization via microwave-assisted methodology of the salvinorin A skeleton. The cycloadducts yielded herein introduce electron-withdrawing substituents and bulky aromatic groups into the C-12 position. Kappa opioid (KOP) receptor space was explored through aromatization of the bent oxanorbornadiene system possessed by the cycloadducts to a planar phenyl ring system. Although dimethyl- and diethylcarboxylate analogues 5 and 6 retain some affinity and selectivity for KOP receptors and are full agonists, their aromatized counterparts 13 and 14 have reduced affinity for KOP receptors. The methods developed herein signify a novel approach toward rapidly probing the structure-activity relationships of furan-containing natural products. © 2011 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

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