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Povoas D.,Unit of Internal Medicine | De Figueiredo M.,Unit of Internal Medicine | Murinello A.,Unit of Internal Medicine | Damasio H.,Unit of Internal Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia | Year: 2011

Infective endocarditis (IE) is now rare in developed countries, but its prevalence is higher in elderly patients with prosthetic valves, diabetes, renal impairment, or heart failure. An increase in health-care associated IE (HCAIE) has been observed due to invasive maneuvers (30% of cases). Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterococcus are the most common agents in HCAIE, causing high mortality and morbidity. We review complications of IE and its therapy, based on a patient with acute bivalvular left-sided MRSA IE and a prosthetic aortic valve, aggravated by congestive heart failure, stroke, acute immune complex glomerulonephritis, Candida parapsilosis fungémia and death probably due to Serratia marcescens sepsis. The HCAIE was assumed to be related to three temporally associated in-hospital interventions considered as possible initial etiological mechanisms: overcrowding in the hospital environment, iv quinolone therapy and red blood cell transfusion. Later in the clinical course, C. parapsilosis and S. marcescens septicemia were considered to be possible secondary etiological mechanisms of HCAIE.

Pellegatta S.,Unit of Molecular Neuro oncology | Pellegatta S.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Eoli M.,Unit of Molecular Neuro oncology | Frigerio S.,Cell Therapy Unit | And 15 more authors.
OncoImmunology | Year: 2013

Recurrent glioblastomas (GBs) are highly aggressive tumors associated with a 6-8 mo survival rate. In this study, we evaluated the possible benefits of an immunotherapeutic strategy based on mature dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with autologous tumor-cell lysates in 15 patients affected by recurrent GB. The median progression-free survival (PFS) of this patient cohort was 4.4 mo, and the median overall survival (OS) was 8.0 mo. Patients with small tumors at the time of the first vaccination (< 20 cm3; n = 8) had significantly longer PFS and OS than the other patients (6.0 vs. 3.0 mo, p = 0.01; and 16.5 vs. 7.0 mo, p = 0.003, respectively). CD8+ T cells, CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells and other immune parameters, such as the levels of transforming growth factor β, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-12 and interferon γ (IFNγ), were measured in the peripheral blood and serum of patients before and after immunization, which enabled us to obtain a vaccination/baseline ratio (V/B ratio). An increased V/B ratio for NK cells, but not CD8+ T cells, was significantly associated with prolonged PFS and OS. Patients exhibiting NK-cell responses were characterized by high levels of circulating IFNγ and E4BP4, an NK-cell transcription factor. Furthermore, the NK cell V/B ratio was inversely correlated with the TGFβ2 and VEGF V/B ratios. These results suggest that tumor-loaded DCs may increase the survival rate of patients with recurrent GB after effective tumor debulking, and emphasize the role of the NK-cell response in this therapeutic setting. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Mongelli G.,University of Catania | Romeo M.A.,Unit of Clinical Pathology | Denaro C.,Intensive Care Unit 1 | Gennaro M.,Intensive Care Unit 1 | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2015

The commercial multi-pathogen probe-based real-time PCR SeptiFast (SF) was evaluated as a rapid and complementing tool for the microbiological diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a series of 138 matched blood samples from 65 patients with bacteraemia, hospitalized in an intensive care unit, when antibiotics had already been administered. SF was positive in 32.6% of the samples, whereas blood culture (BC) was positive in 21.7% (P,0.05). SF identified more pathogens (11 versus 5; specificity, 90.7 %) and reduced the time of aetiological diagnosis, with a mean of 16.3 versus 55.4 h needed for BC (P<0.05). SF enabled appropriate pathogen-oriented therapy in 72% (36/50) of the BSI group of patients on the basis of epidemiological data. According to our data, the use of SF provided important added value to BC, in terms of earlier aetiological diagnosis of BSIs, enabling pathogen-oriented therapy in patients receiving empirical antibiotic treatment. © 2015 The Authors.

Polilli E.,Unit of Clinical Pathology | Fazii P.,Unit of Clinical Pathology | Ursini T.,Unit of Infectious Disease | Fantini F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 4 more authors.
Case Reports in Dermatology | Year: 2011

The prevalence and the clinical relevance of dermatophytoses in HIV-infected patients are poorly documented, particularly for those caused by tinea incognito. Here, we report a case of widespread facialtinea incognito occurring in an Italian patient with advanced HIV infection, showing both skin and brain lesions. Second-line treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and cotrimoxazole, administered after a microbiological characterization of the skin scrapings, led to complete clearance of all lesions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Caivano A.,Laboratory of Preclinical and Translational Research | Laurenzana I.,Laboratory of Preclinical and Translational Research | De Luca L.,Laboratory of Preclinical and Translational Research | La Rocca F.,Laboratory of Preclinical and Translational Research | And 12 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2015

Many cell types release extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles (MVs), and apoptotic bodies, which play a role in physiology and diseases. Presence and phenotype of circulating EVs in hematological malignancies (HMs) remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize EVs in peripheral blood of HM patients compared to healthy subjects (controls). We isolated serum EVs from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia (WM), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and controls. EVs were isolated from serum of peripheral blood by ultracentrifuge steps and analyzed by flow cytometry to define count, size, and immunophenotype. MV levels were significantly elevated in WM, HL, MM, AML, and some MPNs and, though at a lesser degree, in CLL and NHL as compared to healthy controls. HL, MM, and MPNs generated a population of MVs characterized by lower size (below 0.3 μm) when compared to controls. MVs from patients specifically expressed tumor-related antigens, such as CD19 in B cell neoplasms, CD38 in MM, CD13 in myeloid tumors, and CD30 in HL. Both total and antigen-specific count of MVs significantly correlated with different HM clinical features such as Rai stage in CLL, International Prognostic Scoring System in WM, International Staging System in MM, and clinical stage in HL. MVs may represent a novel biomarker in HMs. © 2015, International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).

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