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Kong A.P.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Choi K.C.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chan R.S.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lok K.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 8 more authors.
BMC Public Health

Background: The role of a low glycemic index (GI) diet in the management of adolescent obesity remains controversial. In this study, we aim to evaluate the impact of low GI diet versus a conventional Chinese diet on the body mass index (BMI) and other obesity indices of obese adolescents. Methods. Obese adolescents aged 15-18 years were identified from population-recruited, territory-wide surveys. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥95th percentile of Hong Kong local age- and sex-specific references. Eligible subjects were randomized to either an intervention with low GI diet (consisting of 45-50% carbohydrate, 30-35% fat and 15-20% protein) or conventional Chinese diet as control (consisting of 55-60% carbohydrate, 25-30% fat and 10-15% protein). We used random intercept mixed effects model to compare the differential changes across the time points from baseline to month 6 between the 2 groups. Results: 104 obese adolescents were recruited (52 in low GI group and 52 in control group; 43.3% boys). Mean age was 16.7 ± 1.0 years and 16.8 ±1.0 years in low GI and control group respectively. 58.7% subjects completed the study at 6 months (65.4% in low GI group and 51.9% in control group). After adjustment for age and sex, subjects in the low GI group had a significantly greater reduction in obesity indices including BMI, body weight and waist circumference (WC) compared to subjects in the control group (all p <0.05). After further adjustment for physical activity levels, WC was found to be significantly lower in the low GI group compared to the conventional group (p = 0.018). Conclusion: Low GI diet in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle modification program may be an alternative to conventional diet in the management of obese adolescents. Trial registration number. ClinicalTrials.gov Ref. No: NCT01278563. © 2014 Kong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

McCrickerd K.,University of Sussex | McCrickerd K.,Clinical Nutrition Research Center | Lensing N.,University of Sussex | Lensing N.,University of Potsdam | Yeomans M.R.,University of Sussex
Food Quality and Preference

The expected impact of a food or drink on appetite can influence decisions around eating and the actual experience of satiation and satiety post-consumption. This study explored the relationship between a product's anticipated sensory characteristics and its expected impact on feelings of hunger, fullness and thirst. Female participants (. n=. 118) evaluated 40 widely available food and beverage products (varying in physical characteristics, packaging, serving size and total energy content) for anticipated sensory characteristics, pleasantness and familiarity, alongside expected impact on immediate fullness, hunger after one hour and thirst both immediately and after one hour. Correlations revealed that the most caloric products and those anticipated to be creamier were expected to be more filling and hunger suppressing than the products with lower energy content and expected to be less creamy. Total energy was the best predictor of expected satiation and satiety. We observed that beverage products were expected to be similarly satiating as food products (including liquid, solid and semi-solids) with a similar total energy content and expected creaminess. On the other hand, products expected to be less salty and thick were expected to be most thirst-quenching, and these tended to be beverage products, regardless of their total energy content. These results are in line with emerging evidence suggesting that certain sensory cues associated with nutrients can be used to estimate the satiating power of other foods, including beverages. Beverages are expected to be uniquely thirst-quenching, but are not always expected to have a low satiety-value. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chen L.-W.,National University of Singapore | Lim A.L.,Singapore Institute for Clinical science | Colega M.,Singapore Institute for Clinical science | Tint M.-T.,National University of Singapore | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition

Background: Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 concentrations during pregnancy have been shown to influence birth outcomes, but the evidence is inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to examine the associations of maternal B-vitamin status with gestational age, birth weight, and length in a birth cohort study in Singapore. Methods: Maternal blood samples (n = 999) collected during weeks 26-28 of gestation were assayed for plasma folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 concentrations. Birth weight and gestational age data were obtained from hospital records, and other anthropometric variables were measured within 72 h after birth. Relations between B-vitamin status and birth outcomes were assessed by linear or logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Median (IQR) plasma concentrations were 34.4 (24.5-44.6) nmol/L for folate, 209 (167-258) pmol/L for vitamin B-12, and 61.8 (25.9-113) nmol/L for vitamin B-6.We found that higher plasma folate concentrations were associated with a longer gestational age (0.12wk per SD increase in folate; 95%CI: 0.02, 0.21) and tended to be associatedwith lower risk of all preterm birth (delivery at <37 wk of gestation; OR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.63, 1.00) and spontaneous preterm birth (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.04). Overall, concentrations of maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 were not independently associated with birth weight or being born small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight <10th percentile for gestational age). Conclusions: Higher maternal folate concentrations during late pregnancy were associated with longer gestational age and tended to be associated with a lower risk of preterm birth in this multiethnic Asian population. In contrast, the results of our study suggested little or no benefit of higher folate concentrations for reducing the risk of SGA or of higher vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-12 concentrations for reducing the risk of preterm birth or SGA. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Mccrickerd K.,Clinical Nutrition Research Center | Mccrickerd K.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Forde C.G.,Clinical Nutrition Research Center | Forde C.G.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Forde C.G.,National University of Singapore
Obesity Reviews

The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management. © 2016 World Obesity. Source

McCrickerd K.,Clinical Nutrition Research Center | McCrickerd K.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Forde C.G.,Clinical Nutrition Research Center | Forde C.G.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Forde C.G.,National University of Singapore
Nutrition Bulletin

Parents and caregivers play a powerful role in shaping the food environment in which their children learn about appropriate portion sizes. Parents often report just 'knowing' the amount of food to serve to their children, but evidence indicates that these decisions are driven by the portions parents pick for themselves. This is potentially problematic because, like adults, young children are susceptible to overeating when served large portions, which raises questions about how and when children develop their own portion knowledge. Understanding the social, emotional and cultural factors that shape children's learning about appropriate portion sizes and self-regulation will lead to a better understanding of the calories that end up on children's plates and in their mouths, and the eating behaviours that define them as adults. © 2016 British Nutrition Foundation. Source

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