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Marklund M.,Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism | Stromberg E.A.,Uppsala University | Laerke H.N.,University of Aarhus | Bach Knudsen K.E.,University of Aarhus | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition

Background: Alkylresorcinols have proven to be useful biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake inmany nutritional studies. To improve their utility, more knowledge regarding the fate of alkylresorcinols and their metabolites after consumption is needed. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a combined pharmacokinetic model for plasma concentrations of alkylresorcinols and their 2 major metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid (DHPPA). Methods: The model was established by using plasma samples collected from 3 women and 2 men after a single dose (120 g) of rye bran and validated against fasting plasma concentrations from 8 women and 7 men with controlled rye bran intake (23, 45, or 90 g/d). Alkylresorcinols in the lymph and plasma of a pig fed a single alkylresorcinol dose (1.3 mmol) were quantified to assess absorption. Human ileostomal effluent and pig bile after high and low alkylresorcinol doses were analyzed to evaluate biliary alkylresorcinol metabolite excretion. Results: The model contained 2 absorption compartments: 1 that transferred alkylresorcinols directly to the systematic circulation and 1 in which a proportion of absorbed alkylresorcinols was metabolized before reaching the systemic circulation. Plasma concentrations of alkylresorcinols and their metabolites depended on absorption and formation, respectively, and the mean6SEM terminal elimination half-life of alkylresorcinols (1.960.59 h), DHPPA (1.560.26 h), and DHBA (1.360.22 h) did not differ. The model accurately predicted alkylresorcinol and DHBA concentrations after repeated alkylresorcinol intake but DHPPA concentration was overpredicted, possibly because of poorly modeled enterohepatic circulation. During the 8 h following administration, <2% of the alkylresorcinol dose was recovered in the lymph. DHPPA was identified in both human ileostomal effluent and pig bile, indicating availability of DHPPA for absorption and enterohepatic circulation. Conclusion: Intact alkylresorcinols have advantages over DHBA and DHPPA as plasma biomarkers for whole-grain wheat and rye intake because of lower susceptibility to factors other than alkylresorcinol intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Olsson E.,Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism | Karlstrom B.,Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism | Kilander L.,Uppsala University | Byberg L.,Uppsala University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Background: Adherence to dietary patterns has been associated with cognitive decline and dementia, but studies are inconsistent.Objective: Dietary patterns, i.e., WHO recommendations (Healthy Diet Indicator), a Mediterranean-like diet (modified Mediterranean Diet Score, mMDS), and a low carbohydrate high protein diet (LCHP), were related to incident cognitive dysfunction, as indicated by Alzheimer's disease (AD), all-type dementia, and all-type cognitive impairment, in a cohort of 1,138 elderly Swedish men.Methods: Dietary patterns were derived from 7-day records. Risk relations were calculated by Cox and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed in a subpopulation (n = 564) with energy intake according to the Goldberg cut-off.Results: During a mean follow-up of 12 years, 84, 143, and 198 men developed AD, all-type dementia, and all-type cognitive impairment, respectively. There was no association between Healthy Diet Indicator and any of the outcomes. Hazard ratios associated with 1 standard deviation (SD) increment in the LCHP score were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 1.43) for AD and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.37) for all-type dementia. mMDS was not associated with dementia diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR)/1 SD increase for mMDS and all-type cognitive impairment was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.05). In the subpopulation OR for mMDS and all-type cognitive impairment was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.89). Conclusion: We found no strong associations with development of cognitive dysfunction for any of the dietary patterns investigated. However, there was a potentially beneficial association for a Mediterranean-like diet on the development of cognitive dysfunction in the subpopulation. © 2015 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Ax E.,Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism | Garmo H.,Uppsala University Hospital | Garmo H.,Kings College London | Grundmark B.,Uppsala University Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer

Dietary pattern analyses have increased the possibilities to detect associations between diet and disease. However, studies on dietary pattern and prostate cancer are scarce. Food intake data in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men cohort was determined by 7-day food records. Adherence to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) and a low carbohydrate-high protein (LCHP) score were grouped as low, medium, or high in the whole study population (n = 1,044) and in those identified as adequate reporters of energy intake (n = 566), respectively. Prostate cancer risk was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard regression (median follow-up 13 years) and competing risk of death was considered. There were no associations between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (n = 133) in the whole study population. Among adequate reporters the mMDS was not associated with prostate cancer (n = 72). The LCHP score was inversely related to prostate cancer in adequate reporters, adjusted hazard ratios; 0.55 (0.32-0.96) for medium and 0.47 (0.21-1.04) for high compared to low adherent participants (P-for-trend 0.04). Risk relations were not attributable to competing risk of death. In this study, a LCHP diet was associated with lower prostate cancer incidence. Relations emerged in adequate reporters, underscoring the importance of high-quality dietary data. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Sjogren P.,Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism | Becker W.,Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism | Warensjo E.,Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism | Olsson E.,Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Background: Comparative studies on dietary patterns and long-term mortality are sparse. Objective: The objective was to examine the relations between 10-y mortality and adherence to the World Health Organization dietary guidelines [Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI)], a Mediterranean-like diet, and a carbohydrate-restricted (CR) diet in elderly Swedish men. Design: Dietary habits were determined by 7-d dietary records in a population-based longitudinal study of 924 Swedish men (age: 71 ± 1 y). The HDI score (-1 to 8 points), the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS; 0-8 points), and the CR score (2-20 points) were calculated for each participant. Nonadequate reporters of energy intake were identified (n = 413). Mortality was registered during a median follow-up of 10.2 y. Cox proportional hazards regression, with multivariable adjustments, was used to determine the effects of adherence to each dietary pattern. Results: Two hundred fifteen and 88 subjects died of all-cause and cardiovascular disease, respectively. In all individuals, risk relations to mortality for each SD increment in the scores were observed for only MDS, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.99). Among adequate dietary reporters (n = 511), adjusted HRs for each SD increment in scores were enhanced for MDS (ie, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.92) for all-cause mortality and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.96) for cardiovascular mortality. Corresponding HRs for CR diet score were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.45) for all-cause mortality and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.02) for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Adherence to a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern reduced mortality, whereas adherence to a CR dietary pattern appeared to increase mortality in elderly Swedish men, especially when only adequate dietary reporters were considered. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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