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Chadwick A.C.,Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition | Sahoo D.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2013

Purpose of Review: The athero-protective role of scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is primarily attributed to its ability to selectively transfer cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) to the liver during reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In this review, we highlight recent findings that reveal the impact of SR-BI on lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans. Moreover, additional responsibilities of SR-BI in modulating adrenal and platelet function, as well as female fertility in humans, are discussed. Recent Findings: Heterozygote carriers of P297S, S112F and T175A-mutant SR-BI receptors were identified in patients with high HDL-cholesterol levels. HDL from P297S-SR-BI carriers was unable to mediate macrophage cholesterol efflux, whereas hepatocytes expressing P297S-SR-BI were unable to mediate the selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters. S112F and T175A-mutant receptors exhibited similar impaired cholesterol transport functions in vitro. Reduced SR-BI function in P297S carriers was also associated with decreased steroidogenesis and altered platelet function. Further, human population studies identified SCARB1 variants associated with female infertility. Summary: Identification of SR-BI variants confirms the key role of this receptor in influencing lipid levels and RCT in humans. A deeper understanding of the contributions of SR-BI to steroidogenesis, platelet function and fertility is required in light of exploration of HDL-raising therapies aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Papale G.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Hanson P.J.,Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition | Sahoo D.,Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition | Sahoo D.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) binds high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and mediates the selective uptake of cholesteryl esters (CE). Although the extracellular domain of SR-BI is critical for function, the structural characteristics of this region remain elusive. Using sulfhydryl labeling strategies, we report the novel finding that all six cysteine (Cys) residues in the extracellular domain of SR-BI are involved in disulfide bond formation that is intramolecular by nature. We hypothesized that an SR-BI conformation stabilized by extracellular disulfide bonds is a prerequisite for SR-BI-mediated cholesterol transport. Thus, single-Cys mutant SR-BI receptors (C251S-, C280S-, C321S-, C323S-, C334S-, and C384S-SR-BI), as well as Cys-less SR-BI, a mutant SR-BI receptor void of all Cys residues, were created, and plasma membrane localization was confirmed. Functional assays revealed that C280S-, C321S-, C323S-, and C334S-SR-BI and Cys-less SR-BI mutant receptors displayed weakened HDL binding and subsequent selective uptake of HDL-CE. However, only C323S-SR-BI and Cys-less SR-BI were unable to mediate wild-type levels of efflux of free cholesterol (FC) to HDL. None of the Cys mutations disrupted SR-BI's ability to redistribute plasma membrane FC. Taken together, the intramolecular disulfide bonds in the extracellular domain of SR-BI appear to maintain the receptor in a conformation integral to its cholesterol transport functions. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Ney D.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Blank R.D.,Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition | Hansen K.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2014

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to discuss advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria (PKU). RECENT FINDINGS: Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a whey protein produced during cheese production, is a low-phenylalanine (phe) intact protein that represents a new dietary alternative to synthetic amino acids for people with PKU. Skeletal fragility is a long-term complication of PKU that based on murine research, appears to result from both genetic and nutritional factors. Skeletal fragility in murine PKU is attenuated with the GMP diet, compared with an amino acid diet, allowing greater radial bone growth. Pharmacologic therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin, acting as a molecular chaperone for phenylalanine hydroxylase, increases tolerance to dietary phe in some individuals. Large neutral amino acids inhibit phe transport across the intestinal mucosa and blood-brain barrier, and are most effective for individuals unable to comply with the low-phe diet. SUMMARY: Although a low-phe synthetic amino acid diet remains the mainstay of PKU management, new nutritional and pharmacological treatment options offer alternative approaches to maintain lifelong low phe concentrations. GMP medical foods provide an alternative to amino acid formula that may improve bone health, and tetrahydrobiopterin permits some individuals with PKU to increase tolerance to dietary phe. Further research is needed to characterize the long-term efficacy of these new approaches for PKU management. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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