Edmed S.L.,Clinical Neuropsychology Research Group |
Edmed S.L.,Queensland University of Technology |
Sullivan K.A.,Clinical Neuropsychology Research Group |
Sullivan K.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Brain Injury | Year: 2015
Primary objective: To investigate the influence of the diagnostic terms 'concussion' and 'mild traumatic brain injury' (mTBI) on contact-sport players' injury perceptions and expected symptoms from a sport-related mTBI. It was hypothesized that contact-sport players would hold more negative injury perceptions and expect greater symptom disturbance from a sport-related injury that was diagnosed as an 'mTBI' compared to 'concussion' or an undiagnosed injury. Methods and procedures: One hundred and twenty-two contact-sport players were randomly allocated to one of three conditions in which they read a sport-related mTBI vignette that varied only according to whether the person depicted in the vignette was diagnosed with concussion (n=40), mTBI (n=41) or received no diagnosis (control condition; n=41). After reading the vignette, participants rated their injury perceptions (perceived undesirability, chronicity and consequences) and expectations of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms 6 months post-injury. Main outcomes: There were no significant differences in contact-sport players' injury perceptions or symptom expectations from a sport-related mTBI when it was diagnosed as an mTBI, concussion or when no diagnosis was given. Conclusions: Diagnostic terminology does not appear to have a potent influence on symptom expectation and injury perceptions in contact-sport players. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Ziegler W.,Clinical Neuropsychology Research Group |
Ackermann H.,University of Tübingen
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica | Year: 2014
The aim of this article is to explicate the uniqueness of the motor activity implied in spoken language production and to emphasize how important it is, from a theoretical and a clinical perspective, to consider the motor events associated with speaking as domain-specific, i.e., as pertaining to the domain of linguistic expression. First, phylogenetic data are reviewed demonstrating the specificity of the human vocal tract motor network regarding (i) the entrenchment of laryngeal motor skills within the organization of vocal tract movements, (ii) the evolution of a neural basis for skill acquisition within this system, and (iii) the integration of this system into an auditory-motor network. Second, ontogenetic evidence and existing knowledge about the experience-dependent plasticity of the brain are reported to explicate that during speech acquisition the vocal tract motor system is constrained by universal properties of speech production and by the specific phonological properties of the speaker's ambient language. Third, clinical data from dysarthria and apraxia of speech provide the background for a discussion about the theoretical underpinnings of domain-general versus domain-specific views of speech motor control. The article ends with a brief sketch of a holistic neurophonetic approach in experimental inquiries, assessment, and treatment of neuromotor speech impairment. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
PubMed | Clinical Neuropsychology Research Group
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Neuropsychologia | Year: 2010
Imitation in speech refers to the unintentional transfer of phonologically irrelevant acoustic-phonetic information of auditory input into speech motor output. Evidence for such imitation effects has been explained within the framework of episodic theories. However, it is largely unclear, which neural structures mediate speech imitation and how imitation is related with verbal repetition. Two experiments were conducted, a standard repetition task, and a transformation task requiring phonetic manipulation of the presented auditory nonword stimuli. Nonword materials varied sub-phonemically in word stress (pitch elevation magnitude; PEM) and in a parameter related to speaking style, i.e., the explicitness of final schwa-syllables (SSE). We examined speech imitation in 10 healthy participants, 10 patients with phonological impairments after left hemisphere lesions, and 11 patients with right hemisphere lesions. In repetition, significant imitation of SSE and PEM was observed in all groups of participants. In transformation, imitation occurred in healthy participants and in the patients with right hemisphere lesions, whereas no imitation was observed in the patient group with left hemisphere lesions. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping revealed that different areas within the left temporal plane influenced the degree of imitation of phonetic and prosodic detail in repetition.