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Cesani M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Lorioli L.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Lorioli L.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Grossi S.,Centro Of Diagnostica Genetica E Biochimica Delle Malattie Metaboliche | And 5 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2016

Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive demyelination. The disease is caused by variants in the ARSA gene, which codes for the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A, or, more rarely, in the PSAP gene, which codes for the activator protein saposin B. In this Mutation Update, an extensive review of all the ARSA- and PSAP-causative variants published in the literature to date, accounting for a total of 200 ARSA and 10 PSAP allele types, is presented. The detailed ARSA and PSAP variant lists are freely available on the Leiden Online Variation Database (LOVD) platform at http://www.LOVD.nl/ARSA and http://www.LOVD.nl/PSAP, respectively. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

He M.,Brown University | Jackson C.L.,Brown University | Jackson C.L.,Clinical Molecular Biology Laboratory | Gubrod R.B.,Brown University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2015

Objectives: The current study examined the KRAS mutation status in a spectrum of mucinous lesions of the uterus, including mucinous metaplasia (MM), atypical mucinous proliferation (AMP), endocervical mucosa, and microglandular hyperplasia (MGH). Methods: Thirty-nine cases, including 15 AMPs, nine MMs, nine MGHs, and six normal endocervical mucosas, were selected from the departmental archive. All AMP cases with follow-up biopsies or hysterectomies were reviewed. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and KRAS codons 12 and 13 sequence analyzed. Results: KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations were detected in 10 (67%) of the 15 AMP cases. No KRAS mutations were identified in MMs, MGHs, and endocervical mucosas (P = .002, AMP vs MM or MGH, Fisher exact test). Most women with AMP were postmenopausal (13/15 [86.7%]) and presented with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Among the 10 cases of AMP harboring KRAS mutations, six (60%) cases were subsequently diagnosed with carcinoma, one with atypical complex hyperplasia, and two with AMP within endometrial polyps. Conclusions: The results suggest a possible association between KRAS mutations and mucinous differentiation in endometrial carcinogenesis. KRAS status can help in assessing benign from precursor or malignant mucinous lesions as well as differentiate endometrial lesions from those of cervical origin. © American Society for Clinical Pathology.

Gravina P.,Clinical Molecular Biology Laboratory | Gravina P.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Spoletini I.,Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Fondazione Santa Lucia | Masini S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 9 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2011

Oxidative damage is thought to play a role in the predisposition to schizophrenia. We determined if the polymorphisms of the GSTP1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTA1 genes, which affect the activity of these enzymes against oxidative stress, have a role as susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, analyzing 138 schizophrenic patients and 133 healthy controls. We found that the combination of the absence of GSTM1 gene with the of the GSTM1 gene with the polymorphism GSTA1*B/*B, and the presence of the GSTT1 gene, represents a risk factor for schizophrenia, indicating that the combination of different GST polymorphisms has a role in the predisposition to schizophrenia, probably affecting the capacity of the cell to detoxify the oxidized metabolites of catecholamines. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

He M.,Brown University | He M.,Clinical Molecular Biology Laboratory | Breese V.,Brown University | Hang S.,Clinical Molecular Biology Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Diagnostic Molecular Pathology | Year: 2013

The BRAF V600E somatic mutation is recognized as an oncogenic driver of many human cancers involving the MAPK/ERK pathway. Colorectal and lung cancers associated with the BRAF V600E mutation often demonstrated mucinous morphology. This study hypothesized that the BRAF V600E mutation may be associated with mucinous morphology in endometrial cancer and aimed to investigate its prevalence in mucinous (endometrial) carcinoma (MC) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma with significant mucinous differentiations (ECMD) (>10% neoplastic cells). Twenty-eight cases of endometrial cancer were selected, including 17 (60.7%) cases of MC or ECMD. All patients were Caucasian with age ranging from 50 to 87 years old (median 65). Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue and subjected to both real-time mutant allele-specific amplification polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR amplification, followed by direct sequencing. Three (3/28, 10.7%) BRAF V600E mutations were detected by real-time mutant allele-specific amplification PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. Two of 3 cases positive for BRAF V600E mutation were ECMDs with "surface epithelial changes." KRAS mutations were found in 9 cases (32.1%), none with BRAF mutation. This is the first report of BRAF V600E mutation in endometrial cancer, indicating that it may contribute to tumorigenesis of endometrial cancer, although at a low frequency compared with KRAS mutations. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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