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Ba L.,Tsinghua University | Li P.,Tsinghua University | Li P.,Clinical Laboratory of Zhongke | Zhang H.,Tsinghua University | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2013

P450sca-2 is an industrially important enzyme that stereoselectively converts mevastatin into pravastatin. However, little information or engineering efforts have been reported for this enzyme or its redox partner. In this study, we successfully reconstituted the P450sca-2 activity in Escherichia coli by co-expression with putidaredoxin reductase (Pdr) and putidaredoxin (Pdx) from the Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450cam system. With an HPLC-based screening assay, random mutagenesis was applied to yield a mutant (R8-5C) with a pravastatin yield of the whole-cell biotransformation 4.1-fold that of the wild type. P450sca-2 wild-type and R8-5C were characterized in terms of mevastatin binding and hydroxylation, electron transfer, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. R8-5C showed an active P450 expression level that was 3.8-fold that of the wild type, with relatively smaller changes in the apparent kcat/KM with respect to the substrate mevastatin (1.3-fold) or Pdx (1.5-fold) compared with the wild type. Thus, the increase in the pravastatin yield of the whole-cell biotransformation primarily came from the improved active P450 expression, which has resulted largely from better heme incorporation, although none of the six mutations of R8-5C are located near the heme active site. These results will facilitate further engineering of this P450sca-2 system and provide useful clues for improving other hybrid P450 systems. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Ma Y.-Y.,Chinese Liberation Army General Hospital | Wu T.-F.,Peking University | Liu Y.-P.,Peking University | Wang Q.,Peking University | And 11 more authors.
Brain and Development | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate respiratory chain complex II deficiency resulted from mutation in succinate dehydrogenase gene (SDH) encoding complex II subunits in China. Methods: An 11-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital. He had a history of progressive psychomotor regression and weakness since the age of 4. years. His cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed focal, bilaterally symmetrical lesions in the basal ganglia and thalamus, indicating mitochondrial encephalopathy. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes I-V in peripheral leukocytes were determined via spectrophotometry. Mitochondrial DNA and the succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA) gene were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results: Complex II activity in the leukocytes had decreased to 33.07. nmol/min/mg mitochondrial protein (normal control 71.8. ±. 12.9); the activities of complexes I, III, IV and V were normal. The entire sequence of the mitochondrial DNA was normal. The SDHA gene showed two heterozygous frame-shift mutations: c.G117G/del in exon 2 and c.T220T/insT in exon 3, which resulted in stop codons at residues 56 and 81, respectively. Conclusions: We have described the first Chinese case of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II deficiency, which was diagnosed using enzyme assays and gene analysis. Two novel, compound, frame-shift mutations, c.G117G/del in exon 2 and c.T220T/insT in exon 3 of the SDHA gene, were found in our patient. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Source

Chen Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Z.,Northwestern University | Hu F.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang W.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

Results The cTnT-Q92 mice had impaired diastolic function compared with wild-type mice (E/A ratio, 1.39 ± 0.04 vs. 1.21 ± 0.01, p < 0.001; IVRT, 19.17 ± 0.85 vs. 22.15 ± 1.43 ms, p = 0.028). In response to ovariectomy, cardiac function further decreased compared with that observed in cTnT-Q92 mice that received the sham operation (E/A ratio, 1.15 ± 0.04 vs. 1.21 ± 0.01, p < 0.001; IVRT, 28.31 ± 0.39 vs. 22.15 ± 1.43 ms, p = 0.002). Myocardial energy metabolism, as determined by ATP levels (3.49 ± 0.31 vs. 5.07 ± 0.47 μmol/g, p < 0.001), and the mitochondrial respiratory ratio (2.04 ± 0.10 vs. 2.63 ± 0.11, p = 0.01) also decreased significantly. By contrast, myocardial concentrations of MDA increased significantly in the OVX group, and PGC-1α, PPARα and NRF-1decreased significantly. E2 supplementation significantly elevated myocardial ATP levels (4.55 ± 0.21 vs. 3.49 ± 0.31 μmol/g, p = 0.003) and mitochondrial respiratory function (3.93 ± 0.05 vs. 2.63 ± 0.11, p = 0.001); however, it reduced the MDA level (0.21 ± 0.02 vs. 0.36 ± 0.03 nmol/g, p < 0.001), which subsequently improved diastolic function (E/A ratio, 1.35 ± 0.06 vs. 1.15 ± 0.04, p < 0.001; IVRT, 18.22 ± 1.16 vs. 28.31 ± 0.39 ms, p = 0.007).Conclusions Our study has shown that 17β-estradiol improved myocardial diastolic function, prevented myocardial energy dysregulation, and reduced myocardial oxidative stress in cTnT-Q92 mice.Objective We investigated the effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement on both mitochondrial and myocardial function in cTnT-Q92 transgenic mice generated by cardiac-restricted expression of a human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation.Methods The cTnT-Q92 mice were ovariectomized at twenty weeks of age and were treated with either placebo (OVX group) or E2 (OVX + E2 group) for twelve weeks before being sacrificed. Wild-type and cTnT-Q92 female mice receiving sham operation were used as controls. Indices of diastolic function such as mitral early (E) and late (A) inflow as well as isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) were measured by echocardiography. A Clark-type electrode was used to detect respiratory control, and ATP levels were determined at the mitochondrial level using HPLC. Key components related to mitochondrial energy metabolism, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), were also analyzed using Western blot and RT-PCR. The levels of oxidative stress markers were determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) using the thiobarbituric acid assay. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ba L.,Tsinghua University | Li P.,Tsinghua University | Li P.,Clinical Laboratory of Zhongke | Zhang H.,Tsinghua University | And 3 more authors.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2013

Hybrid P450 systems in which P450 monooxygenases are reconstituted with non-native or surrogate redox partners have become important for the engineering of this class of versatile enzymes. P450sca-2 from Streptomyces carbophilus stereoselectively hydroxylates mevastatin to yield pravastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. While S. carbophilus has been successfully applied in the industrial biotransformation process for pravastatin, the molecular study and engineering of P450sca-2 has been very limited. We have previously established a functional P450sca-2/Pdx/Pdr hybrid system. In this study, on the basis of a more active P450sca-2 mutant (R8-5C), five sites located in the substrate binding pocket, substrate access entrance, and presumed Pdx interaction interface were rationally chosen, and systematically subjected to site-directed saturation mutagenesis (SDSM), and three rounds of iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM). A best mutant (Variant III) was obtained, which showed a whole cell biotransformation activity (377.5mg/L) and an overall apparent kcat (6.37min-1) that was 7.1- and 10.0-fold that of the starting template R8-5C, respectively. Kinetic characterization revealed that most of the improvements seen for the SDSM and ISM mutants came from enhanced overall electron transfer, with the two sites at the interface between P450sca-2 and Pdx (T119 and N363) being most critical. Our study underscores the important role of electron transfer in a hybrid P450 system, and also demonstrates the utility of ISM in optimizing the redox partner interface. This should facilitate engineering of this and other important hybrid P450 systems. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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