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Spazzafumo L.,Biostatistical Center | Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri F.,Inrca National Institute | Abbatecola A.M.,Scientific Direction | And 15 more authors.

Factor structure analyses have revealed the presence of specific biological system markers in healthy humans and diseases. However, this type of approach in very old persons and in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is lacking. A total sample of 2,137 Italians consisted of two groups: 1,604 healthy and 533 with T2DM. Age (years) was categorized as adults (≤65), old (66-85), oldest old (>85-98) and centenarians (≥99). Specific biomarkers of routine haematological and biochemical testing were tested across each age group. Exploratory factorial analysis (EFA) by principal component method with Varimax rotation was used to identify factors including related variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to confirm factor solutions for each age group. EFA and SEM identified specific factor structures according to age in both groups. An age-associated reduction of factor structure was observed from adults to oldest old in the healthy group (explained variance 60.4% vs 50.3%) and from adults to old in the T2DM group (explained variance 57.4% vs 44.2%). Centenarians showed three-factor structure similar to those of adults (explained variance 58.4%). The inflammatory component became the major factor in old group and was the first one in T2DM. SEM analysis in healthy subjects suggested that the glucose levels had an important role in the oldest old. Factorial structure change during healthy ageing was associated with a decrease in complexity but showed an increase in variability and inflammation. Structural relationship changes observed in healthy subjects appeared earlier in diabetic patients and later in centenarians. © 2011 American Aging Association. Source

Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Antonicelli R.,Coronary Care Unit Ospedale U Sestilli | D'Alessandra Y.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS | Santini G.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Cardiology

Background: Geriatric patients with acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) can frequently present atypical symptoms and non-diagnostic electrocardiogram. The detection of modest cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevation is challenging for physicians needing to routinely triage these patients. Unfortunately, non-coronary diseases, such as acute heart failure (CHF), may cause cTnT elevation. Circulating microRNAs (miRs) have emerged as biomarkers of MI. However, their diagnostic potential needs to be determined in elderly NSTEMI patients. Methods: 92 NSTEMI patients (82.6 ± 6.9 years old; complicated by CHF in 74% of cases) and 81 patients with acute CHF without AMI (81.3 ± 6.8 years old) were enrolled at presentation. A third group comprised 99 age-matched healthy control subjects (CTR). Plasma levels of miR-1, -21, -133a, -208a, -423-5p and -499-5p were analyzed. Results: MiR-1, -21 -133a and -423-5p showed a 3- to 10-fold increase and miR-499-5p exhibited > 80-fold increase in acute NSTEMI patient vs. CTR. MiR-499-5p and -21 showed a significantly increased expression in NSTEMI vs. CHF. Interestingly, mir-499-5p was comparable to cTnT in discriminating NSTEMI vs. CTR and CHF patients. Its diagnostic accuracy was higher than conventional and hs-cTnT in differentiating NSTEMI (n = 31) vs. acute CHF (n = 32) patients with modest cTnT elevation at presentation (miR-499-5p AUC = 0.86 vs. cTnT AUC = 0.68 and vs. hs-cTnT AUC = 0.70). Conclusions: Circulating miR-499-5p is a sensitive biomarker of acute NSTEMI in the elderly, exhibiting a diagnostic accuracy superior to that of cTnT in patients with modest elevation at presentation. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Giacconi R.,National Health Research Institute | Costarelli L.,National Health Research Institute | Malavolta M.,National Health Research Institute | Cardelli M.,Italian Institute of Technology | And 13 more authors.

Zinc dyshomeostasis may lead to an augmented production of proinflammatory cytokines promoting chronic inflammation and increasing the susceptibility to age-related diseases. Several studies suggest that the zinc transporter protein ZIP2 may play a relevant role in the immune system especially during zinc deficiency, while a polymorphism on the coding region of ZIP2 gene (Gln/Arg/Leu) has been associated with severe carotid artery disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of ZIP2 SNP on zinc and inflammatory status in 1090 elderly healthy free-living subjects enrolled in the ZincAge project and to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on zinc status, inflammatory mediators, and zinc transporter expression depending on ZIP2 genotype. ZIP2 Leu- (Arg43Arg) carriers showed enhanced IL-6, TNF-α, and RANTES plasma levels associated with decreased free cytosolic zinc in PBMCs and an upregulation of zinc transporters ZIP2, ZIP8, and Znt1. Moreover, Leu- subjects displayed significant decrement of inflammatory mediators such as MCP-1, TNF-α, and RANTES following zinc supplementation. In summary, this investigation provides new evidence on the effect of ZIP2 Gln/Arg/Leu polymorphism on proinflammatory mediators and zinc homeostasis in elderly population with a more pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of zinc supplementation in subjects carrying ZIP2 Leu- (Arg43Arg) genotype. These novel findings could be useful in identifying elderly subjects who may benefit of zinc intervention to decrease the inflammatory status and to prevent or delay the development of age-related diseases. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Source

Giacconi R.,Translational Research Ctr Of Nutrition And Ageing | Costarelli L.,Translational Research Ctr Of Nutrition And Ageing | Malavolta M.,Translational Research Ctr Of Nutrition And Ageing | Piacenza F.,Translational Research Ctr Of Nutrition And Ageing | And 13 more authors.

Proinflammatory cytokines and heat shock proteins play relevant roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. We investigated whether Hsp70 1267 A/G and TNF-α -308 G/A polymorphisms are associated with proinflammatory mediators, zinc status and laboratory parameters in 1,078 healthy elderly from ZincAge study. Hsp70 1267 A/G genotype and allele distribution were similar among various European countries, while a TNF-α genetic heterogeneity was observed between the Northern and the Southern European populations, with a major frequency of the -308 A variant in France, Germany and Poland. We used linear regression models to test additive, dominant or recessive associations of each SNP with proinflammatory mediators, laboratory parameters, metallothioneins and zinc status. Hsp70 1267 A/G SNP, but not TNF-α -308 G/A SNP, influences TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels under additive, dominant and recessive models (for TNF-α only). An association between Hsp70 1267 A/G SNP and zinc plasma levels was observed in the dominant model. In particular, G allele carriers showed increased circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and zinc. Moreover, both these SNPs affect creatinine levels suggesting a possible influence on renal function. In conclusion, Hsp70 1267 A/G SNP is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine production in healthy elderly and might represent a possible determinant of individual susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Malavolta M.,Laboratory of Nutrigenomic and Immunosenescence | Giacconi R.,Laboratory of Nutrigenomic and Immunosenescence | Piacenza F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Santarelli L.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 8 more authors.

Associations have been reported between plasma Cu and Zn levels and the incidence of the most important age-related diseases. Previously proposed methods of using plasma Cu/Zn as a predictor of allcause mortality have been derived from populations in which old and very old subjects were underrepresented. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the usefulness of plasma Cu/Zn as a sensitive biomarker of harmful inflammatory or nutritional changes in the elderly and its incremental prognostic utility as a predictor of all-cause mortality in a functionally independent elderly Italian cohort. The association between plasma Cu/Zn and inflammatory (CRP, ESR, IL-6) or nutritional (albumin, BMI) markers was studied in 498 elderly subjects. Blood samples were taken from 164 healthy 20- to 60-year-old volunteer controls. A 3.5 years prospective follow-up study of mortality by age-related diseases was performed in n = 218 over 70-year-olds. Plasma Cu/Zn ratio was associated with all the inflammatory markers studied, as well as with serum albumin, and predicted 3.5 years mortality in subjects over 70. Plasma Cu/Zn was higher in women than men and increased with advancing age. Subjects with stable cardiovascular disease (CVD) displayed higher plasma Cu/Zn than those without, due mainly to increased plasma Cu. However, most of the age-related changes of Cu/Zn resulted from a progressive decline of plasma Zn. Cu/Zn ratio may be considered an important clinical inflammatory-nutritional biomarker as well as a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in over 70-year-olds. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

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